Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sediment and Mussel Samples from Kentucky Lake, USA

  • Bommanna G. Loganathan
  • Kurunthachalam Senthil KumarEmail author
  • Shigeki Masunaga
  • Kenneth S. Sajwan


Sediment and mussel tissues from the Kentucky Dam Tailwater (KDTW) and Ledbetter Embayment (LE) of Kentucky Lake, Kentucky, USA, were analyzed to examine the presence of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-, mono-, and di-ortho-chlorine-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of target compounds varied with locations and sample matrices. In general, KDTW sediment samples contained slightly higher amounts of PCDD/DFs (average: 1100, range: 120-2400) than the LE sediments (average: 920, range: 580-1300) on a pg/g dry wt (dw) basis. Dioxin-like PCBs in KDTW were (average: 550, range: 70–2,000) higher than in LE (average: 320, range: 44-1000) on a ng/g dw basis. In contrast, mussel tissues had greater concentrations of PCDD/DFs in LE (average: 6500, range: 2200–13,000) than in KDTW (average: 3500, range: 2500-4800). Dioxin-like PCBs were slightly higher in KDTW (average: 76, range: 18–100) than in LE (average: 49, range: 24–96) on a ng/g fat wt basis. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated using tissue concentrations and sediment concentrations based on dry weight. PCDD/DFs BSAF was in the range of 0.21-25 in LE and 0.093-13 in KDTW. 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF in LE and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in KDTW had a greater BSAF, while BSAF for dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.84 to 13 in LE and from 2.3 to 12 in KDTW in which PCB-169 had the greatest BSAF in LE and PCB-167 in KDTW. Toxic equivalency (TEQ) was greatest in mussel from LE (mean: 193 pgTEQ/g fat wt) followed by mussel from KDTW (32 pgTEQ/g fat wt), sediment in KDTW (13 pgTEQ/g dry wt), and sediment in LE (7.6 pgTEQ/g dry wt). In general, PCDD/DF had a greater contribution to toxicity in mussels, while dioxin-like PCBs had a greater contribution to toxicity in sediment at both locations.


PCBs Dioxin TCDD Mussel Tissue Toxic Equivalency Factor 
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National Science Foundation's Collaborative Research in Undergraduate Institutions (NSF-CRUI), Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (Fellowship to KS; ID:P00165), and Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan supported the research. The authors are thankful to Dr. James Sickel, Professor of Biology, Murray State University for his help in field sampling, identification and age determination of freshwater mussels.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bommanna G. Loganathan
    • 1
  • Kurunthachalam Senthil Kumar
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Shigeki Masunaga
    • 2
  • Kenneth S. Sajwan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Center for Reservoir ResearchMurray State UniversityMurrayUSA
  2. 2.Graduate School of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityHodogaya-kuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Natural Sciences and MathematicsSavannah State UniversitySavannahUSA

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