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Cadmium Exposures in Fathead Minnows: Are There Sex-Specific Differences in Mortality, Reproductive Success, and Cd Accumulation?

  • Marlo K. Sellin
  • Tess M. Eidem
  • Alan S. Kolok
Article

Abstract

The primary goal of this experiment was to determine whether cadmium (Cd) exposure has sex-specific effects on the reproductive success of fathead minnows as measured by time to first spawn, spawning frequency, clutch size, fecundity, fertilization success, hatching success, and offspring mortality to 2 d post hatch. Prior to breeding, minnows were either exposed to 50 μg/L Cd or sham exposed for 21 d. After exposures, minnows were paired (male × female) into one of four breeding groups—control × control (C × C), control × exposed (C × E), exposed × control (E × C) or exposed × exposed (E × E). Pairs of minnows were subjected to a 21-d breeding study during which the reproductive parameters mentioned above were measured. During the breeding study, minnows in the E × E pairs had significantly higher mortality than minnows in the C × C pairs; however, the mortality of minnows in the C × E and E × C did not differ from that of C × C pairs. Presumably, behavioral alterations in both males and females exposed to Cd accounted for the increased mortality in the E × E group. The results of the breeding study did not reveal any significant differences among any of the reproductive parameters measured with the exception of offspring mortality. Offspring from C × E pairs did not differ from offspring from C × C pairs with regard to mortality; however, offspring from pairs containing exposed males (E × C and E × E) had significantly higher mortality than offspring from C × C pairs suggesting that paternal exposure to Cd leads to an increase in offspring mortality.

Keywords

Exposure Period Clutch Size Fertilization Success Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Breeding Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by an Environmental Protection Agency Greater Research Opportunities Fellowship (#91636301-0) given to M.K.S. and by NIH grant # 1 P20 RR16469 from the BRIN Program of the National Center for Research Resources. Special thanks to Debbie Akerly for her assistance with fish care and maintenance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlo K. Sellin
    • 1
  • Tess M. Eidem
    • 1
  • Alan S. Kolok
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA

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