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Toxicity of Three Polyethoxylated Tallowamine Surfactant Formulations to Laboratory and Field Collected Fairy Shrimp, Thamnocephalus platyurus

  • John M. BrauschEmail author
  • Philip N. Smith
Article

Abstract

Polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in herbicide formulations to increase the efficacy of active ingredients. POEA promotes penetration of herbicide active ingredients into plant cuticles, and in animal species is known to cause alterations in respiratory surfaces. POEA use has increased recently with the advent of “Roundup-Ready” crops; however, its potential effects on aquatic invertebrates are relatively unknown. The aquatic macroinvertebrate Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea, Anostraca) was used to assess the acute toxicity of POEA. Three formulations of POEA consisting of a 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1 average oxide:tallowamine were used in this study. All POEA formulations were found to be extremely toxic to T. platyurus with 48-h LC50 concentrations as low as 2.01 μg/L for 15:1. POEA toxicity increased as the tallowamine chain length was reduced, whereas the oxide chain length appeared to only slightly increase toxicity. Based on these results, POEA has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms in areas in which it is used.

Keywords

Surfactant Alkyl Carbon Pesticide Formulation Fairy Shrimp Respiratory Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental ToxicologyTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

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