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Alkaline Digestion and Solid Phase Extraction Method for Perfluorinated Compounds in Mussels and Oysters from South China and Japan

  • M. K. So
  • S. Taniyasu
  • P. K. S. LamEmail author
  • G. J. Zheng
  • J. P. Giesy
  • N. Yamashita
Article

Abstract

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have been identified in the coastal waters of China and Japan. An alkaline digestion method, coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE), and high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced with high-resolution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was developed to determine PFCs in mussel and oyster samples from coastal waters of south China and Japan. These techniques produced adequate recoveries and reporting limits with small quantities of PFCs. Concentrations of individual PFCs in mussels and oysters from south China and Japan ranged from 113.6 to 586.0 pg/g, wet weight (ww) for PFOS, 63.1 to 511.6 pg/g, ww for perfluorohexane sulfonate, 9.3 to 30.1 pg/g, ww for perfluorobutane sulfonate and 37.8 to 2957.0 pg/g, ww for perfluorooctane sulfonamide. The quantification of perfluorinated carboxylates was compromised by interferences from carboxylates in the procedural blanks. Perfluoroundecanoate and perfluorononanoate had relatively great blank interferences, which resulted in relatively poor limits of quantification for these compounds. Some PFCs were only identified in a limited number of samples: perfluorododecanoate in samples from Tokyo Bay, Japan (195.9 pg/g, ww); and perfluorodecanoate in Fuzhou, China (131.7 pg/g, ww) and Tokyo Bay (118.6 pg/g, ww). The greatest concentrations of perfluorooctanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, and perfluorohexanoate were observed in samples from Tokyo Bay and Bei Hai, south China.

Keywords

Target Analytes Procedural Blank Oyster Tissue Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by the Area of Excellence Scheme under the University Grants Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, China (Project No. AoE/P-04/2004), and a RGC-CERG (cityU1401/05M).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. K. So
    • 1
  • S. Taniyasu
    • 2
  • P. K. S. Lam
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. J. Zheng
    • 1
  • J. P. Giesy
    • 1
    • 3
  • N. Yamashita
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and ChemistryCity University of Hong KongKowloonPeoples Republic of China
  2. 2.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyNational Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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