Monitoring of Antifouling Booster Biocides in Water and Sedimentfrom the Port of Osaka, Japan
Concentrations of booster antifouling compounds in the port of Osaka, Japan were assessed. Concentrations of Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-isothiazolone), thiabendazole (2-(4-thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate), Diuron (3,4-dichlorophenyl-N, N-dimethylurea), Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), and M1 (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-amino-s-triazine) in port water samples were in the range of <0.003–0.004 μg L−1, <0.0008–0.020 μg L−1, <0.0007–1.54 μg L−1, <0.0008–0.267 μg L−1, and <0.0019–0.167 μg L–1, respectively. IPBC was not detected in the water samples, but the concentration of Diuron was higher than any previously reported. The concentrations of Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 in sediment samples were in the range of <0.04–2.4 μg kg−1 dry, <0.08–1.2 μg kg−1 dry, <0.64–1350 μg kg−1 dry, <0.08–8.2 μg kg−1 dry, and <0.18–2.9 μg kg−1 dry, respectively. IPBC was again not detected. The levels of Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, and Irgarol 1051 in water and sediment samples were high in a poorly flushed mooring area for small and medium-hull vessels. Levels of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were highest in summer. The concentration of Sea-Nine 211 in water increased between August and October 2002. Except for M1, increases in the levels of booster biocides in sediment were observed during the study period. The sediment–water partition (Kd) was calculated by dividing the concentrations in sediment by the concentrations in water. The Kd values for Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 were 690, 180, 2700, 300, and 870. The Kd value for these alternative compounds was lower than for TBT.
This work was performed with financial support from the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. The authors would like to thank Dr. Mochida and the staff of the National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea for the supply of the standard compound M1.
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