Monitoring of Antifouling Booster Biocides in Water and Sedimentfrom the Port of Osaka, Japan
Concentrations of booster antifouling compounds in the port of Osaka, Japan were assessed. Concentrations of Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-isothiazolone), thiabendazole (2-(4-thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate), Diuron (3,4-dichlorophenyl-N, N-dimethylurea), Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), and M1 (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-amino-s-triazine) in port water samples were in the range of <0.003–0.004 μg L−1, <0.0008–0.020 μg L−1, <0.0007–1.54 μg L−1, <0.0008–0.267 μg L−1, and <0.0019–0.167 μg L–1, respectively. IPBC was not detected in the water samples, but the concentration of Diuron was higher than any previously reported. The concentrations of Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 in sediment samples were in the range of <0.04–2.4 μg kg−1 dry, <0.08–1.2 μg kg−1 dry, <0.64–1350 μg kg−1 dry, <0.08–8.2 μg kg−1 dry, and <0.18–2.9 μg kg−1 dry, respectively. IPBC was again not detected. The levels of Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, and Irgarol 1051 in water and sediment samples were high in a poorly flushed mooring area for small and medium-hull vessels. Levels of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were highest in summer. The concentration of Sea-Nine 211 in water increased between August and October 2002. Except for M1, increases in the levels of booster biocides in sediment were observed during the study period. The sediment–water partition (Kd) was calculated by dividing the concentrations in sediment by the concentrations in water. The Kd values for Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 were 690, 180, 2700, 300, and 870. The Kd value for these alternative compounds was lower than for TBT.
KeywordsBiocide Diuron Chlorothalonil Thiabendazole Antifouling Paint
This work was performed with financial support from the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. The authors would like to thank Dr. Mochida and the staff of the National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea for the supply of the standard compound M1.
- Gibbs, PE, Bryan, GW 1986Reproductive failure in populations of the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus, caused by imposex induced by tributyltin from antifouling paintsJ Mar Biol Assoc UK66767777Google Scholar
- Jacobsen A, Mazza LS, Lawrence LJ, Lawrence B, Jackson S, Kesterson A (1993) Fate of an antifoulant in an aquatic environment. In: Racke KD, Leslie AR (eds) American Chemical Society (ACS) symposium series no. 522 Pesticides in urban environments: fate and significance. pp 127-138.Google Scholar
- Martinez, K, Ferrer, I, Barceló, D 2000Part-per-trillion level determination of antifouling pesticides and their byproducts in seawater samples by off-line solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometryJ Chromatogr A8792737PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martinez, K, Ferrer, I, Fernandez-Alba, AR, Marce, RM, Borrull, F, Barceló, D 2001Occurrence of antifouling biocides in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environmentEnviron Toxicol22543552Google Scholar
- Okamura, H, Aoyama, I, Liu, D, Maguire, RJ, Pacepavicius, GJ, Lau, YL 2000aFate and ecotoxicity of the new antifouling compound Irgarol 1051 in the aquatic environmentWat Res3435233530Google Scholar
- Okamura, H, Aoyama, I, Takami, T, Maruyama, T, Suzuki, Y, Matsumoto, M, Katsuyama, I, Hamada, J, Beppu, T, Tanaka, O, Maguire, RJ, Liu, D, Lau, YL, Pacepavicius, GJ 2000bPhytotoxicity of the new antifouling compound irgarol 1051 and a major degradation productMar Pollut Bull40754763Google Scholar
- Sakkas, VA, Konstantinou, IK, Lambropoulou, DA, Albanis, TA 2002Survey for the occurrence of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment of GreeceEnviron Sci Pollut Res9327332Google Scholar
- Scarlett, A, Donkin, ME, Fileman, TW, Donkin, P 1997Occurrence of the marine antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 within the Plymouth Sound locality: implications for the green macroalga Enteromorpha intestinalisMar Pollut Bull34645651Google Scholar
- Shade, WD, Hurt, SS, Jacobson, AH, Reinert, KH 1994Ecological risk assessment of a novel marine antifoulantEnviron Toxicol Risk Asses1216381408Google Scholar
- Thomas, KV, Sylvia, JB, Waldock, MJ 2000Antifouling paint booster biocide contamination in UK marine sedimentsMar Pollut Bull40739745Google Scholar
- Tolosa, I, Readman, JW, Blaevoet, A, Ghilini, S, Bartocci, J, Horvat, M 1996Contamination of Mediterranean (Cote d’Azur) coastal waters by organotins and Irgarol 1051 used in antifouling paintsMar Pollut Bull32335341Google Scholar
- Voulvoulis, N, Scrimshaw, MD, Lester, JN 2000Occurrence of four biocides utilized in antifouling paints, as alternatives to organotin compounds, in waters and sediments of a commercial estuary in the UKMar Pollut Bull40938946Google Scholar