Monitoring of Antifouling Booster Biocides in Water and Sedimentfrom the Port of Osaka, Japan
Article First Online: 25 February 2005 Received: 22 April 2004 Accepted: 30 September 2004 Abstract
Concentrations of booster antifouling compounds in the port of Osaka, Japan were assessed. Concentrations of Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-isothiazolone), thiabendazole (2-(4-thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate), Diuron (3,4-dichlorophenyl-
N, N-dimethylurea), Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4- t-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino- s-triazine), and M1 (2-methylthio-4- t-butylamino-6-amino- s-triazine) in port water samples were in the range of <0.003–0.004 μg L −1, <0.0008–0.020 μg L −1, <0.0007–1.54 μg L −1, <0.0008–0.267 μg L −1, and <0.0019–0.167 μg L –1, respectively. IPBC was not detected in the water samples, but the concentration of Diuron was higher than any previously reported. The concentrations of Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 in sediment samples were in the range of <0.04–2.4 μg kg −1 dry, <0.08–1.2 μg kg −1 dry, <0.64–1350 μg kg −1 dry, <0.08–8.2 μg kg −1 dry, and <0.18–2.9 μg kg −1 dry, respectively. IPBC was again not detected. The levels of Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, and Irgarol 1051 in water and sediment samples were high in a poorly flushed mooring area for small and medium-hull vessels. Levels of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were highest in summer. The concentration of Sea-Nine 211 in water increased between August and October 2002. Except for M1, increases in the levels of booster biocides in sediment were observed during the study period. The sediment–water partition (Kd) was calculated by dividing the concentrations in sediment by the concentrations in water. The Kd values for Sea-Nine 211, thiabendazole, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, and M1 were 690, 180, 2700, 300, and 870. The Kd value for these alternative compounds was lower than for TBT. References Albanis, TA, Lambropoulou, DA, Sakkas, VA, Konstantinou, IK 2002 Antifouling paint booster biocide contamination in Greek marine sediment Chemosphere 48 475 485 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Alizieu, C, Saujuan, J, Deltriel, JP, Borel, M 1986 Tin contamination in Arcachon Bay: effects of oyster shell anomalies Mar Pollut Bull 17 494 498 CrossRef Google Scholar Biselli, S, Bester, K, Hühnerfuss, H, Fent, K 2000 Concentrations of the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051 and of organotins in water and sediments of German North and Baltic Sea marinas Mar Pollut Bull 40 233 243 CrossRef Google Scholar Bowman, JC, Readman, JW, Zhou, JL 2003 Seasonal variability in the concentrations of Irgarol 1051 in Brighton Marina, UK; including the impact of dredging Mar Pollut Bull 46 444 451 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Boxall, ABA, Comber, SD, Conrad, AU, Howcroft, J, Zaman, N 2000 Inputs, monitoring and fate modelling of antifouling biocides in UK estuaries Mar Pollut Bull 40 898 905 CrossRef Google Scholar Chau, YK, Maguire, RJ, Brown, M, Yang, F, Batchelor, SP, Thompson, JA 1997 Occurrence of butyltin compounds in mussels in Canada Appl Organomet Chem 11 903 912 CrossRef Google Scholar Comber, SDW, Gardner, MJ, Boxall, ABA 2002 Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries J Environ Monit 4 417 425 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Connelly, DP, Readman, JW, Knap, AH, Davies, J 2001 Contamination of the coastal waters of Bermuda by organotins and the Triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051 Mar Pollut Bull 42 409 414 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Dahl, B, Blanck, H 1996 Toxic effects of the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 on periphyton communities in coastal water microcosms Mar Pollut Bull 32 342 350 CrossRef Google Scholar Fent, K, Hunn, J 1991 Phenyltins in water, sediment and biota of freshwater marinas Environ Sci Technol 25 956 963 CrossRef Google Scholar Gardinali, PR, Plasencia, M, Mack, S, Popell, C 2002 Occurrence of Irgarol 1051 in coastal waters from Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA Mar Pollut Bull 44 781 788 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Gibbs, PE, Bryan, GW 1986 Reproductive failure in populations of the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus, caused by imposex induced by tributyltin from antifouling paints J Mar Biol Assoc UK 66 767 777 Google Scholar Hall, LW, Jr, Killlen, WD, Gardinali, PR 2004 Occurrence of Irgarol 1051 and its major metabolite in Maryland waters of Chesapeake Bay Mar Pollut Bull 48 554 562 PubMed Google Scholar Harino, H, Fukushima, M, Yamamoto, Y, Kawai, S, Miyazaki, N 1998 Organotin compounds in water, sediment, and biological samples from the Port of Osaka, Japan Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 35 558 564 PubMed Google Scholar
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