Sources of Organic Compounds in Fine Soil and Sand Particles During Winter in the Metropolitan Area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed I. Rushdi
  • Khalid Al-Mutlaq
  • Bernd R. T. Simoneit
Article

Abstract

Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.

References

  1. Abas M, Simoneit BRT (1996) Composition of extractable organic matter of air particles from Malaysia: An initial study. Atmosph Environ 30:2779–2793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abas M, Simoneit BRT, Elias VO, Cabral JA, Cardoso JN (1995) Composition of higher molecular weight organic matter in smoke aerosol from biomass combustion in Amazonia. Chemosphere 30:995–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ATS (American Thoracic Society) (1997) Adverse effects of crystalline silica exposure. Am J Crit Care Med 155:761–765Google Scholar
  4. Barbier M, Tusseau D, Marty JC, Saliot A (1981) Sterols in aerosols, surface microlayer and subsurface water in the North-Eastern tropical Atlantic. Oceanol Acta 4:77–84Google Scholar
  5. Berny PJ, Cote LM, Buck WB (1994) Relationship between soil lead, dust lead, and blood lead concentrations in pets and their owners: Evaluation of soil lead threshold values. Environ Res 76:84–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broddin G, Cautreels W, van Cauwenberghe D (1980) On the aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon levels in urban and background aerosols from Belgium and the Netherlands. Atmosph Environment 14:895–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brooks P, Maxwell JR (1974) Early stage fate of phytol in a recently deposited lacustrine sediment. In: Tissot B, Bienner F (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry 1973. Editions, Technip, Paris, pp 977–991Google Scholar
  8. Cass GR, Rogge WF, Gray HA, Hildemann LM, Markowski GR, Mazurek MA, Simoneit BRT (1993) Source contributions to atmospheric carbon particle concentrations. In: Southern California air quality study, data analysis, Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp 110–115Google Scholar
  9. Fraser MP, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT, Rasmussen RA (1997) Air quality model evaluation data for organics: 4. C2 to C36 non-aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 31:2356–2367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fraser MP, Cass GR, Simoneit RT (1998a) Gas-phase and particle-phase organic compounds emitted from motor vehicle traffic in a Los Angeles roadway tunnel. Environ Sci Technol 32:2051–2060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraser MP, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT, Rasmussen RA (1998b) Air quality model evaluation data for organics: 5. C6-C22 nonpolar and semipolar aromatic compounds. Environ Sci Technol 32:1760–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gagosian RB, Peltzer ET (1986) The importance of atmospheric input of terrestrial organic material to deep sea sediments. Org Geochem 10:61–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gagosian RB, Peltzer ET, Zafiriou OC (1981) Atmospheric transport of continentally derived lipids to the tropical North Pacific. Nature 291:321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gagosian RB, Peltzer ET, Merrill JT (1987) Long-range transport of terrestrially derived lipids in aerosols from the South Pacific. Nature 325:800–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerr F, Letz R, Ryan PB, Green RC (2000) Neurological effects of environmental exposure to arsenic in dust and soil among humans. Neurotoxicology 21:475–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Grossi V, Hirschler A, Raphel D, Rontani JF, de Leeuw JW, Bertrand J-C (1998) Biotransformation pathways of phytol in recent anoxic sediments. Org Geochem 29:845–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guieu C (2002) Atmospheric input: Source and fate in the Mediterranean column water. Oceanis 26:601–625Google Scholar
  18. Holloway PJ (1982) The chemical contribution of plant cutins. In: Cutler DF, Alvin KL, Price CE (eds) The plant cuticle. Linnean Society, Academic Press, London, pp 45–85Google Scholar
  19. Ketseridis G, Hahn J, Jaenicke R, Junge C (1976) Organic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter. Atmosph Environment 10:603–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lehninger AL (1970) Biochemistry. Worth Publishers, Inc. New York, 833 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Marty J-C, Saliot A (1982) Aerosols in equatorial Atlantic air: n-alkanes as a function of particle size. Nature 298:144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Matsumoto G, Hanya T (1980) Organic constituents in atmospheric fallout in the Tokyo area. Atmosph Environment 14:1409–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mazurek MA, Simoneit BRT, Cass GR (1989) Interpretation of high-resolution gas chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data acquired from atmospheric organic aerosol samples. Aerosol Sci Techn 10:408–420Google Scholar
  24. Meijer E, Kromhout H, Heederik D (2001) Respiratory effects of exposure to low levels of concrete dust containing crystalline silica. Am J Indust Med 40:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morgan WKC (1986) On dust, disability, and death. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:639–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Morrison RI, Bick W (1967) The wax fraction of soils: Separation and determination of some components. J Sci Food Agr 18:351–357Google Scholar
  27. Oros DR, Mazurek MA, Baham JE, Simoneit BRT (2002) Organic tracers from wild fire residues in soils and rain/river washout. Water Air Soil Pollution 137:203–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Plumlee GS, Ziegler TL (2004) The medical geochemistry of dusts, soils and other earth materials. In: Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds). Treatise on geochemistry. Elsevier Ltd. pp 263–310Google Scholar
  29. Ridgwell AJ (2002) Dust in the Earth system: The biogeochemical lining of the land, air and sea. Phil Trans R Soc London 360:2905–2924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1991) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 1–Charbroilers and meat cooking operations. Environ Sci Techn 25:1112–1125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rogge WF, Mazurek MA, Hildemann LM, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1993a) Quantification of organic aerosols on a molecular level: Identification, abundance and seasonal variation. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere. Atmosph Environ 27A:1309–1330Google Scholar
  32. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1993b) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 2. Noncatalyst and catalyst-equipped automobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environ Sci Techn 27:636–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1993c) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 3. Road dust, tire debris, and organometallic brake lining dust: roads as sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol 27:1892–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1993d) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 4. Particulate abrasion products from leaf surfaces of urban plants. Environ Sci Technol 27:2700–2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1993e) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 5. Natural gas home appliances. Environ Sci Technol 27:2736–2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1994) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 6. Cigarette smoke in the urban atmosphere. Environ Sci Technol 28:1375–1388Google Scholar
  37. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1996) Mathematical modeling of atmospheric fine particle-associated primary organic compound concentrations. J Geophys Res 101:19379–19394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1997a) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 7. Hot asphalt roofing tar pot fumes. Environ Sci Technol 31:2726–2730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1997b) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 8. Boilers burning no. 2 distillate fuel oil. Environ Sci Technol 31:2731–2737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1998) Sources of fine organic aerosol: 9. Pine, oak and synthetic log combustion in residential fireplaces. Environ Sci Technol 32:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rogge WF, Medeiros PM, Simoneit BRT (2005) Organic marker compounds for soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies cattle feedlots. Atmos Environ (in press)Google Scholar
  42. Saad MAH, Beltagy AI, Moahmoud MM (2003) Total dissolved and particulate lead in the Western Harbor of Alexandria, a Mediterranean basin under stress. Marine Pollution Bull 47:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schauer JJ, Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT (1996) Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers. Atmosph Environ 30:3837–3855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simoneit BRT (1977) Organic matter in eolian dusts over the Atlantic Ocean. Mar Chem 5:443–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Simoneit BRT (1980) Eolian particulates from oceanic and rural areas—Their lipids, fulvic and humic acids and residual carbon. In: Douglas AG, Maxwell JR (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry, 1979. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 343–352Google Scholar
  46. Simoneit BRT (1984) Organic matter of the troposphere—III. Characterization and sources of petroleum and pyrogenic residues in aerosols over the western United States. Atmosph Environ 18:51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Simoneit BRT (1986) Characterization of organic constituents in aerosols in relation to their origin and transport: A review. Int J Environ Anal Chem 23:207–237Google Scholar
  48. Simoneit BRT (1989) Organic matter of troposphere—V: Application of molecular marker analysis to biogenic emissions into the troposphere for source reconciliations. J Atmos Chem 8:251–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Simoneit BRT (1998) Biomarker PAHs in the environment. In: Neilson AH (ed) The handbook of environmental chemistry. Hutzinger O (ed.-in-chief) PAH and related compounds, vol. 3, Part I. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 175–221Google Scholar
  50. Simoneit BRT, Mazurek MA (1982) Organic matter of the troposphere—II. Natural background of biogenic lipid matter in aerosols over the rural western United States. Atmosph Environ 16:2139–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Simoneit BRT, Mazurek MA (1989) Organic tracers in ambient aerosols and rain. Aerosol Sci Technol 10:267–291Google Scholar
  52. Simoneit BRT, Mazurek MA, Reed WE (1983) Characterization of organic matter in aerosols over rural sites: Phytosterols. In: Bjorøy M, et al. (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry 1981. J. Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, pp 355–361Google Scholar
  53. Simoneit BRT, Cox RE, Standley LJ (1988) Organic matter of the troposphere-IV: Lipids in Harmattan aerosols of Nigeria. Atmosph Environ 22:983–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simoneit BRT, Cardoso JN, Robinson N (1990) An assessment of the origin and composition of higher molecular weight organic matter in aerosols over Amazonia. Chemosphere 21:1285–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Simoneit BRT, Crisp PT, Mazurek MA, Standley LJ (1991a) Composition of extractable organic matter of aerosols from the Blue Mountains and southeast coast of Australia. Environ Int 17:405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Simoneit BRT, Sheng G, Chen X, Fu J, Zhang J, Xu Y (1991b) Molecular marker study of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of China. Atmosph Environ 25A:2111–2129Google Scholar
  57. Simoneit BRT, Cardoso JN, Robinson N (1991c) An assessment of terrestrial higher molecular weight lipid compounds in air particulate matter over the South Atlantic from about 30–70˚S. Chemosphere 23:447–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Simoneit BRT, Rogge WF, Mazurek MA, Standley LJ, Hildemann LM, Cass GR (1993) Lignin pyrolysis products, lignans and resin acids as specific tracers of plant classes in emissions from biomass combustion. Environ Sci Technol 27:2533–2541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Standley LJ, Simoneit BRT (1987) Composition of extractable plant wax, resin and thermally matured components in smoke particles from prescribed burns. Environ Sci Technol 21:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed I. Rushdi
    • 1
  • Khalid Al-Mutlaq
    • 2
  • Bernd R. T. Simoneit
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric SciencesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.College of Food and Agriculture ScienceKing Saud UniversitySaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations