, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 115–123 | Cite as

Living kidney donation from people at risk of nephrolithiasis, with a focus on the genetic forms

  • Giovanni GambaroEmail author
  • G. Zaza
  • F. Citterio
  • A. Naticchia
  • P. M. Ferraro
Invited Review


Deciding whether to accept a donor with nephrolithiasis is a multifaceted task because of the challenge of finding enough suitable donors while at the same time ensuring the safety of both donors and recipients. Until not long ago, donors with a history of renal stones or with stones emerging during screening on imaging were not considered ideal, but recent guidelines have adopted less stringent criteria for potential donors at risk of stones. This review goes through the problems that need to be approached to arrive at a wise clinical decision, balancing the safety of donors and recipients with the need to expand the organ pool. The risk of declining renal function and worsening stone formation is examined. Documents (consensus statements, guidelines, etc.) on this issue released by the most important medical societies and organizations are discussed and compared. Specific problems of living kidney donation associated with certain systemic (chronic hypercalcemia due to CYP24A1 gene mutations, primary hyperoxaluria, APRT deficiency) and renal (medullary sponge kidney, cystinuria, distal renal tubular acidosis, Dent’s disease, Bartter syndrome, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis) Mendelian disorders that cause nephrolithiasis are also addressed.


Guidelines Kidney transplantation Living donation Mendelian disease Renal stone 



This review was supported by an in-house grant from the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UOC Nefrologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCSRomeItaly
  2. 2.Renal Unit, Department of MedicineUniversity Hospital of VeronaVeronaItaly
  3. 3.UOSA Trapianto di rene, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCSRomeItaly
  4. 4.Università Cattolica del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly

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