High prevalence of pediatric urinary tract stones in Xinjiang Uyghur
- 71 Downloads
The aim of the study was to report the characteristics of urolithiasis in Uyghur patients from Xinjiang, China. The composition of stones collected from 1863 patients in the Uyghur region of Xinjiang was analyzed. The median age of patients was 17 years [25th and 75th percentiles: 2, 36]. The stones were delivered by 1299 males (69.7%) and 564 females (30.3%). Calcium oxalate was the predominant stone component in 42.1% of the patients, followed by ammonium urate in 20.6%. Females had formed more stones of magnesium ammonium phosphate 8.9 vs. 5.6% (p = 0.010) and carbonate apatite 6.2 vs. 3.3% (p = 0.004). In contrast uric acid was more common in males than in females; 21.6 vs. 15.1% (p = 0.001). In this series, pediatric patients (age range 0–18) were more likely to present with a stone (51.5%, p < 0.001). Moreover, the largest number of pediatric stones was recorded in children 1–2 years old (37.9%, p < 0.001). The occurrence of ammonium urate stones was extremely high (52.4%) in children with an age below 1 year. There was a downward trend for ammonium urate with age in both children and adults (p for trend < 0.001, respectively). In contrast the frequency of uric acid declined with age in pediatric patients, but increased in adults (p for trend < 0.001, respectively). This study provides a basis for further considerations on the management of Xinjiang Uyghur patients and emphasize the severity of pediatric stone problems.
KeywordsUrolithiasis Stone composition Ammonium urate Pediatric stones
This work was financed by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81570633); Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangzhou City, China (nos. 201604020001, 201607010359, 201607010162) and Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (no. 2017B030314108).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This study has been approved by the Ethics Review Board of First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, First Teaching Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and First People’s Hospital of Kashgar Erea. All procedures performed were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all the individual participants included in the study.
- 7.Zhang J, Chen H, Mao W, Zhao Y, Jiang Y, Xin Y, Chen Y, Wang H, Wang T, Li Y, Li L (2008) The elementary assessment of climate change and environment in Xinjiang. Desert Oasis Meteorol 2:1–11Google Scholar
- 8.Zhang L, Yang B, Cheng X (2011) Evaluation of resource-environment base in arid area: a case of Xinjiang. Arid Land Geogr 34:713–718Google Scholar
- 9.Türk C, Neisius A, Petrik A, Seitz C, Skolarikos A, Thomas K (2018) Guidelines on urolithiasis: European Association of Urology. http://uroweb.org/guideline/urolithiasis/. Accessed Apr 2018
- 10.Chen Z (2010) The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region census data. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar