, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 445–452 | Cite as

Composition of urinary calculi in infants: a report from an endemic country

  • Mirza Naqi Zafar
  • Salma Ayub
  • Hafsa Tanwri
  • Syed Ali Anwar Naqvi
  • Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
Original Paper


Pediatric urolithiasis remains endemic in low-resource countries where infants constitute 17–40% of all children with urolithiasis. This study reports socio-economic factors, medical history and chemical composition of urinary stones in 976 infants of up to 2 years of age. Between 1992 and 2016, 976 infants presented to our institute with 1038 stones. Chemical composition of stones was analyzed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mean age of infants was 19.5 ± 5.74 months with a M:F ratio of 5.5:1. Half (50%) of the infants were rural dwellers, 90% belonged to low socio-economic class and 70% were malnourished. A history of chronic diarrhoea was reported in 13% and urinary tract infections in 5%. The anatomic location was bladder in 487 (46.9%), kidney in 246 (23.6%), ureter in 142 (13.6%), urethra in 2 (0.2%) and 161 (15.5%) were passed spontaneously. Overall frequency of compounds in stones showed ammonium acid urate (AAU) in 772 (74.37%), calcium oxalate (CaOx) in 410 (39.5%). Uric acid (UA) in 119 (11.46%), calcium phosphate apatite (CaP) in 96 (9.25%), magnesium ammonium phosphate (Struvite) in 45 (4.34%), cystine in 12 (1.16%) and xanthine in 40 (3.85%). Frequency of compounds was similar in genders. Infants of age 0–6 months had higher frequency of UA (28%), CaOx (50%) and low AAU (61%) as compared to 11, 39 and 75%, respectively, in 7–24 months (p < 0.049) (p < 0.002) (p < 0.001). Nucleus of stones showed pure AAU in 63 and 43% on the surface due to addition of CaOx, struvite and CaP. Our study has shown that AAU is a major component of stones in infants where the main risk factors are poverty, malnutrition, diarrheal diseases and dehydration.


Urinary Stones Infants Chemical composition 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirza Naqi Zafar
    • 1
  • Salma Ayub
    • 1
  • Hafsa Tanwri
    • 1
  • Syed Ali Anwar Naqvi
    • 2
  • Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologySindh Institute of Urology and TransplantationKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of UrologySindh Institute of Urology and TransplantationKarachiPakistan

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