, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 309–315

The inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of the spores of Lygodium japonicum on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats

  • Hyuk Jin Cho
  • Woong Jin Bae
  • Su Jin Kim
  • Sung Hoo Hong
  • Ji Youl Lee
  • Tae-Kon Hwang
  • Yeong Jin Choi
  • Sung Yeoun Hwang
  • Sae Woong Kim
Original Paper


We investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of Lygodii spora (LS) as a preventive and therapeutic agent for experimentally induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis with ethylene glycol (EG) in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into preventive (n = 18, for 28 days) and therapeutic (n = 24, for 42 days) groups. The preventive group was further subdivided into three groups of six rats each: preventive control, preventive lithiatic control (EG) and preventive lithiatic LS (EG + 400 mg/kg LS). Similarly, the therapeutic group was subdivided into four groups of six rats each: therapeutic control, therapeutic lithiatic control, therapeutic lithiatic untreated, and therapeutic lithiatic LS. Lithiasis was induced by adding 0.75 % EG to the drinking water of all groups except the preventive and therapeutic control groups. Preventive and therapeutic subjects also received the LS ethanol extract in drinking water at a dose of 400 mg/kg, since day 0 or day 28, respectively. At the end of the each experimental period, various biochemical parameters were measured in urine and kidney homogenates. The kidneys were subjected to histopathological analysis. The results revealed that treatment with the LS preventive protocol significantly decreased the levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and uric acid, and increased the levels of urinary citrate as compared to those in the EG control. No significant changes in the urinary parameters except oxalate and citrate levels were observed in the rats in the therapeutic protocol. In both preventive and therapeutic protocols, the extract significantly decreased kidney peroxides, renal calcium, oxalate content, and the number of kidney oxalate deposits as compared to those in the EG group. We conclude that LS is useful as a preventive and therapeutic agent against the formation of oxalate kidney stones.


Nephrolithiasis Calcium oxalate Lygodii spora Ethylene glycol 


  1. 1.
    Preminger GM, Tiselius HG, Assimos DG et al (2007) Guideline for the management of ureteral calculi. J Urol 178:2418–2434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Uribarri J, Oh MS, Carroll HJ (1989) The first kidney stone. Ann Intern Med 111:1006–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hadjzadeh M, Khoei A, Hadjzadeh Z, Parizady M (2007) Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol J 4:86–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pearle MS (2012) Shock-wave lithotripsy for renal calculi. N Engl J Med 367:50–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fink HA, Wilt TJ, Eidman KE et al (2013) Medical management to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis in adults: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Guideline. Ann Intern Med 158:535–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gadge NB, Jalalpure SS (2012) Curative treatment with extracts of Bombax ceiba fruit reduces risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. Pharm Biol 50:310–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmadi M, Rad AK, Rajaei Z, Hadjzadeh MA, Mohammadian N, Tabasi NS (2012) Alcea rosea root extract as a preventive and curative agent in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 44:304–307PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bashir S, Gilani AH (2011) Antiurolithic effect of berberine is mediated through multiple pathways. Eur J Pharmacol 651:168–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Atmani F, Sadki C, Aziz M, Mimouni M, Hacht B (2009) Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis. Urol Res 37:75–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nizami AN, Rahman MA, Ahmed NU, Islam MS (2012) Whole Leea macrophylla ethanolic extract normalizes kidney deposits and recovers renal impairments in an ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model of rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med 5:533–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Divakar K, Pawar AT, Chandrasekhar SB, Dighe SB, Divakar G (2010) Protective effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia roots against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 48:1013–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laikangbam R, Damayanti Devi M (2012) Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal deposition on kidneys of urolithiatic rats by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract. Urol Res 40:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rathod NR, Biswas D, Chitme HR, Ratna S, Muchandi IS, Chandra R (2012) Urolithiatic effects of Punica granatum in male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 140:234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tang S (1992) Jingshizhenglei-beiji-bencao. Orient Publishing Co., Ltd., OsakaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li S (1992) Bencao-gangmu. Orient Publishing Co., Ltd., OsakaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang LH, Yin ZQ, Ye WC (2006) Flavonoids from Lygodium japonicum. Biochem Syst Ecol 34:885–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang LH, Fan CL, Zhang XT, Yin ZQ, Ye WC (2006) A new steroidal glycoside from Lygodium japonicum. Chin Pharm Univ 37:491–493Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ye WC, Fan CL, Zhang LH, Yin ZQ, Zhao SX (2007) A new phenolic glycoside from the roots of Lygodium japonicum. Fitoterapia 78:600–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park S, Pearle MS (2007) Pathophysiology and management of calcium stones. Urol Clin North Am 34:323–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Selvam R, Bijikurien T (1991) Methionine feeding prevents kidney stone deposition by restoration of free radical mediated changes in experimental rat urolithiasis. J Nutr Biochem 1:644–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matsuda H, Yamazaki M, Naruo S, Asanuma Y, Kubo M (2002) Anti-androgenic and hair growth promoting activities of Lygodii spora (spore of Lygodium japonicum) I. Active constituents inhibiting testosterone 5alpha-reductase. Biol Pharm Bull 25:622–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahmed MS, El Tanbouly ND, Islam WT, Sleem AA, El Senousy AS (2005) Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. lowers growing in Egypt. Phytother Res 19:807–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Comalada M, Ballester I, Bailon E et al (2006) Inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers in primary bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages by naturally occurring flavonoids: analysis of the structure-activity relationship. Biochem Pharmacol 2:1010–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chow K, Dixon J, Gilpin S, Kavanagh JP, Rao PN (2004) Citrate inhibits growth of residual fragments in an in vitro model of calcium oxalate renal stones. Kidney Int 65:1724–1730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kramer G, Klingler HC, Steiner GE (2000) Role of bacteria in the development of kidney stones. Curr Opin Urol 10:35–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li XL, Zhou AG, Han Y (2006) Anti-oxidation and anti-microorganism activities of purification polysaccharide from Lygodium japonicum in vitro. Carbohydr Polym 66:634–642Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dyntar D, Eppenberger-Eberhardt M, Maedler K et al (2001) Glucose and palmitic acid induce degeneration of myofibrils and modulate apoptosis in rat adult cardiomyocytes. Diabetes 50:2105–2113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyuk Jin Cho
    • 1
  • Woong Jin Bae
    • 2
  • Su Jin Kim
    • 1
  • Sung Hoo Hong
    • 1
  • Ji Youl Lee
    • 1
  • Tae-Kon Hwang
    • 1
  • Yeong Jin Choi
    • 3
  • Sung Yeoun Hwang
    • 4
  • Sae Woong Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Seoul St. Mary’s HospitalThe Catholic University of KoreaSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Catholic Integrative Medicine Research Institute, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of KoreaSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of KoreaSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Korea Bio Medical Science InstituteSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations