Advertisement

Urological Research

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 671–681 | Cite as

Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica

  • Aslam Khan
  • Saeed R. Khan
  • Anwar H. Gilani
Original Paper

Abstract

Holarrhena antidysenterica has a traditional use in the treatment of urolithiasis, therefore, its crude extract has been investigated for possible antiurolithic effect. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Ha.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, Ha.Cr demonstrated a concentration-dependent (0.25–4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of aggregation. It decreased the size of crystals and transformed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) to calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals, in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ha.Cr (0.3 mg/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the cell toxicity and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm2) crystals. In male Wistar rats, receiving 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG) for 21 days along with 1 % ammonium chloride (AC) in drinking water, Ha.Cr treatment (30–100 mg/kg) prevented the toxic changes caused by lithogenic agents; EG and AC, like loss of body weight, polyurea, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. These data indicate that Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation, antioxidant and renal epithelial cell protective activities and may provide base for designing future studies to establish its efficacy and safety for clinical use.

Keywords

Urolithiasis Holarrhena antidysenterica In vitro In vivo MDCK cell line Rats 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan as (1) indigenous PhD and (2) International Research Support Initiative Program (IRSIP) scholarships awarded to Aslam Khan.

References

  1. 1.
    Coe FL, Keck J, Norton ER (1977) The natural history of calcium urolithiasis. JAMA 238:1519–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bashir S, Gilani AH, Siddiqui AA, Pervez S, Khan SR, Sarfaraz NJ, Shah AJ (2010) Berberis vulgaris root bark extract prevents hyperoxaluria induced urolithiasis in rats. Phytother Res 24:1250–1255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hussain M, Rizvi SA, Askari H, Sultan G, Lal M, Ali B, Naqvi SA (2009) Management of stone disease: 17 years experience of a stone clinic in a developing country. J Pak Med Assoc 59:843–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Srisubat A, Potisat S, Lojanapiwat B, Setthawong V, Laopaiboon M (2009) Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for kidney stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD007044Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Qiang W, Ke Z (2004) Water for preventing urinary calculi. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004292Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coe FL, Evan AP, Worcester EM, Lingeman JE (2010) Three pathways for human kidney stone formation. Urol Res 38:147–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moe OW, Pearle MS, Sakhaee K (2011) Pharmacotherapy of urolithiasis: evidence from clinical trials. Kidney Int 79:385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hess B (2003) Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi. Ther Umsch 60:79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mattle D, Hess B (2005) Preventive treatment of nephrolithiasis with alkali citrate—a critical review. Urol Res 33:73–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kmiecik J, Kucharska E, Sulowicz W, Ochmanski W (1997) Etiology and pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Przegl Lek 54:173–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khan A, Bashir S, Khan SR, Gilani AH (2011) Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways. BMC Complement Altern Med 11:96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gilani AH, Rahman AU (2005) Trends in ethnopharmocology. J Ethnopharmacol 100:43–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butterweck V, Khan SR (2009) Herbal medicines in the management of urolithiasis: alternative or complementary? Planta Med 75:1095–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Usmanghani K, Saeed A, Alam MT (1997) Indusyunic medicine. University of Karachi Press, Karachi, pp 255–256Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, Du celliar J, Duke PK (2002) Handbook of medicinal herbs, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kapoor LD (1990) Hand book of ayurvedic medicinal plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 205–206Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duke JA (1992) Hand book of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, pp 292–293Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aqil F, Zahin M, Ahmad I (2008) Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extracts of four ayurvedic medicinal plants. Indian J Exp Biol 46:668–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aqil F, Ahmad I (2007) Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 29:79–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Atal CK, Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A (1986) Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. I: preliminary screening. J Ethnopharmacol 18:133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gilani AH, Khan A, Khan AU, Bashir S, Rehman NU, Mandukhail SU (2010) Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Holarrhena antidysenterica in gut motility disorders. Pharm Biol 48:1240–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Khan A, Bashir S, Gilani AH (2012) An in vivo study on the diuretic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 6:454–458Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Research Council (1996) Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Williamson EM, Okpako DT, Evans FJ (1996) Selection, preparation, and pharmacological evaluation of plant material. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bashir S, Gilani AH (2009) Antiurolithic effect of Bergenia ligulata rhizome: an explanation of the underlying mechanisms. J Ethnopharmacol 122:106–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ajith TA, Usha S, Nivitha V (2007) Ascorbic acid and [alpha]-tocopherol protect anticancer drug cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice: a comparative study. Clin Chim Acta 375:82–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kang DG, Yun C, Lee HS (2003) Screening and comparison of antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of herbal medicines used in Korea. J Ethnopharmacol 87:231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Atmani F, Slimani Y, Mimouni M, Hacht B (2003) Prophylaxis of calcium oxalate stones by Herniaria hirsuta on experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in rats. BJU Int 92:137–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bashir S, Gilani AH (2011) Antiurolithic effect of berberine is mediated through multiple pathways. Eur J Pharmacol 651:168–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bashir S, Gilani AH (2011) Antiurolithic effect of berberine is mediated through multiple pathways. Eur J Pharmacol 651:168–175Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pizzolato P (1971) Mercurous nitrate as a histochemical reagent for calcium phosphate in bone and pathological calcification and for calcium oxalate. Histochem J 3:463–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vanachayangkul P, Chow N, Khan SR, Butterweck V (2010) Prevention of renal crystal deposition by an extract of Ammi visnaga L. and its constituents khellin and visnagin in hyperoxaluric rats. Urol Res 33:189–195Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Daly JA, Ertingshausen G (1972) Direct method for determining inorganic phosphate in serum with the “CentrifiChem”. Clin Chem 18:263–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hess B, Meinhardt U, Zipperle L, Giovanoli R, Jaeger P (1995) Simultaneous measurements of calcium oxalate crystal nucleation and aggregation: impact of various modifiers. Urol Res 23:231–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tiselius HG (2003) Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease. BJU Int 91:758–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guerra A, Meschi T, Allegri F, Prati B, Nouvenne A, Fiaccadori E, Borghi L (2006) Concentrated urine and diluted urine: the effects of citrate and magnesium on the crystallization of calcium oxalate induced in vitro by an oxalate load. Urol Res 34:359–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wesson JA, Ward MD (2006) Role of crystal surface adhesion in kidney stone disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 15:386–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sheng X, Ward MD, Wesson JA (2005) Crystal surface adhesion explains the pathological activity of calcium oxalate hydrates in kidney stone formation. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:1904–1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang AY (2009) Vascular and other tissue calcification in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 29(Suppl 2):S9–S14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khan SR (1997) Animal models of kidney stone formation: an analysis. World J Urol 15:236–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kato Y, Yamaguchi S, Yachiku S, Nakazono S, Hori J, Wada N, Hou K (2004) Changes in urinary parameters after oral administration of potassium-sodium citrate and magnesium oxide to prevent urolithiasis. Urology 63:7–11 (discussion 11–12)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gurocak S, Kupeli B (2006) Consumption of historical and current phytotherapeutic agents for urolithiasis: a critical review. J Urol 176:450–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Atmani F, Khan SR (2000) Effects of an extract from Herniaria hirsuta on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. BJU Int 85:621–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aihara K, Byer KJ, Khan SR (2003) Calcium phosphate-induced renal epithelial injury and stone formation: involvement of reactive oxygen species. Kidney Int 64:1283–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Escobar C, Byer KJ, Khaskheli H, Khan SR (2008) Apatite induced renal epithelial injury: insight into the pathogenesis of kidney stones. J Urol 180:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Byer K, Khan SR (2005) Citrate provides protection against oxalate and calcium oxalate crystal induced oxidative damage to renal epithelium. J Urol 173:640–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Santhosh Kumar M, Selvam R (2003) Supplementation of vitamin E and selenium prevents hyperoxaluria in experimental urolithic rats. J Nutr Biochem 14:306–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thamilselvan S, Khan SR, Menon M (2003) Oxalate and calcium oxalate mediated free radical toxicity in renal epithelial cells: effect of antioxidants. Urol Res 31:3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Babich H (1982) Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review. Environ Res 29:1–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zahin M, Aqil F, Ahmad I (2009) The in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of four Indian medicinal plants International. J pharm pharm Sci 1:88–95Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Park HK, Jeong BC, Sung MK, Park MY, Choi EY, Kim BS, Kim HH, Kim JI (2008) Reduction of oxidative stress in cultured renal tubular cells and preventive effects on renal stone formation by the bioflavonoid quercetin. J Urol 179:1620–1626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Muruganandan S, Srinivasan K, Gupta S, Gupta PK, Lal J (2005) Effect of mangiferin on hyperglycemia and atherogenicity in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 97:497–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Michelacci YM, Boim MA, Bergamaschi CT, Rovigatti RM, Schor N (1992) Possible role for chondroitin sulfate in urolithiasis: in vivo studies in an experimental model. Clin Chim Acta 208:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fan J, Glass MA, Chandhoke PS (1999) Impact of ammonium chloride administration on a rat ethylene glycol urolithiasis model. Scanning Microsc 13:299–306Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tisselius HG (1996) Solution chemistry of supersaturation. In: Coe FL, Favus MJ, Pak CYC, Parks JH, Preminger GM (eds) Kidney stones: medical and surgical management. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 33–64Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Soundararajan P, Mahesh R, Ramesh T, Begum VH (2006) Effect of Aerva lanata on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 44:981–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sangeeta D, Sidhu H, Thind SK, Nath R (1994) Effect of Tribulus terrestris on oxalate metabolism in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 44:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Santhosh Kumar M, Selvam R (2003) Supplementation of vitamin E and selenium prevents hyperoxaluria in experimental urolithic rats. J Nutr Biochem 14:306–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wiessner JH, Hasegawa AT, Hung LY, Mandel GS, Mandel NS (2001) Mechanisms of calcium oxalate crystal attachment to injured renal collecting duct cells. Kidney Int 59:637–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Patel MV, Patel KB, Gupta SN (2010) Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis. Ayu 31:478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pal A, Sharma PP, Mukherjee PK (2009) A Clinical Study of Kutaja (Holarrhena Antidysenterica Wall) on Shonitarsha. Hindu 5(33):33Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Paranjpe P, Patki P, Joshi N (2000) Efficacy of an indigenous formulation in patients with bleeding piles: a preliminary clinical study. Fitoterapia 71:41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Natural Product Research Division, Department of Biological and Biomedical SciencesAga Khan University Medical CollegeKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Centre for the Study of Lithiasis, Department of Pathology, College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations