Advertisement

Urological Research

, 34:163 | Cite as

Bladder lithiasis: from open surgery to lithotripsy

  • Athanasios G. PapatsorisEmail author
  • Ioannis Varkarakis
  • Athanasios Dellis
  • Charalambos Deliveliotis
Review

Abstract

Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary calculi and usually occur because of bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic voiding dysfunction, infection, or foreign bodies. Children remain at high risk for developing bladder lithiasis in endemic areas. Males with prostate disease or relevant surgery and women who undergo anti-incontinence surgery are at a higher risk for developing vesical lithiasis. Open surgery remains the main treatment of bladder calculus in children. In adults, the classical treatment for bladder calculi is endoscopic transurethral disintegration with mechanical cystolithotripsy, ultrasound, electrohydraulic lithotripsy, Swiss Lithoclast, and holmium:YAG laser. Novel modifications of these treatment modalities have been used for large calculi. Open and endoscopic surgery requires anesthesia and hospitalization. Alternatively, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has been demonstrated to be simple, effective, and well tolerated in high-risk patients. Recently, simultaneous percutaeous suprapubic and transurethral cystolithotripsy has been tested as well as percutaneous cystolithotomy by using a laparoscopic entrapment sac.

Keywords

Bladder Calculus Lithiasis Lithotripsy Shock wave lithotripsy 

References

  1. 1.
    Ellis H (1969) A history of bladder stone. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 3Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shattock SG (1905) A prehistoric or predynastic Egyptian calculus. Trans Pathol Soc Lond 56:275Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schwartz BF, Stoller ML (2000) The vesical lithiasis. Urol Clin North Am 27:333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yoshida O (1990) A chronological and geographical study on urothiliasis in Japan. Jpn J Endourology ESWL 3:5Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ali SH, Rifat UN (2005) Etiological and clinical patterns of childhood urolithiasis in Iraq. Pediatr Nephrol 20:1453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grenabo L, Hedelin H, Petterson S (1988) Adherence of urease-induced crystals to rat bladder epithelium. Urol Res 16:49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Menon M, Resnick MI (2002) Urinary lithiasis: etiology, diagnosis, and medical management. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED, Wein AJ (eds) Campell’s urology. 8th edition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 3229Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rafique M (2005) Vesical calculus formation on permanent sutures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 15:373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Irer B, Aslan G, Cimen S, et al (2005) Development of vesical calculi following tension-free vaginal tape procedure. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 16:245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lipke M, Schulsinger D, Sheynkin Y, et al (2004) Endoscopic treatment of bladder calculi in post-renal transplant patients: a 10-year experience. J Endourol 18:787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aslant A, Akkaya B, Karaquzel G, et al (2004) Bladder augentation with an omental pedicled gastric seromuscular flap without the necessity of gastric resection. Urol Res 32:298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Drach GW (1992) Urinary lithiasis: etiology, diagnosis, and medical management. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Stamey TA, Vaughan ED (eds) Campell’s urology. 6th edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 2140Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Millan-Rodriguez F, Izquierdo-Latorre F, Montlleo-Gonzalez M, et al (2005) Treatment of bladder stones without associated prostate surgery: results of a prospective study. Urology 66:505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barnes RW, Bergman RT, Worton E (1963) Lithalopaxy vs cystolithotomy. J Urol 89:680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaur P, Garg KM, Bhandari NS (1990) Lithalopaxy: a fading art. J Indian Med Assoc 88:163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ebert A, Stangl J, Kuhn R, et al (2003) The frequency-doubled double-pulse Neodym:YAG laser lithotripter (FREDDY) in lithotripsy of urinary stones. First clinical experience. Urologe A 42:825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leveillee RJ, Lobik L (2003) Intracorporeal lithotripsy: which modality is best? Curr Opin Urol 13:249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Un-no T, Nagata M, Takayama T, et al (2000) Cystolithotripsy for bladder stones: comparison of holmium:YAG laser with Lithoclast as a lithotripsy device. Hinyokika Kiyo 46:307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Teichman JMH, Rogenes VJ, McIver BJ, et al (1997) Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser cystolithotripsy of large bladder calculi. Urology 50:44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grasso M (1996) Experience with the Holmium laser as an endoscopic lithotrite. Urology 48:199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abarchi H, Hachem A, Erraji M, et al (2003) Pediatric vesical lithiasis. 70 case reports. Ann Urol 37:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sylla C, Fall PA, Ndoye A, et al (2001) Bladder lithisis. Dakar Med 46:29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vespasiani G, Pesce F, Agro EF, et al (1996) Endoscopic ballistic lithotripsy in the treatment of bladder calculi in patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction. J Endourol 10:551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Viprakasit DP, Clemens JQ (2005) Use of resectoscope to aid in bladder stone extraction. Urology 65:1219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okeke Z, Shabsigh A, Gupta M (2004) Use of Amplatz sheath in male urethra during cystolitholapaxy of large bladder calculi. Urology 64:1026PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kostakopoulos A, Stavropoulos NJ, Makrichoritis C, et al (1996) Exracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy monotherapy for bladder stones. Int Urol Nephrol 28:157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Husain I, El-Faqih SR, Shamsuddin AB, et al (1994) Primary extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in management of large bladder calculi. J Endourol 8:183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Delakas D, Daskalopoulos G, Cranidis A (1998) Experience with the Dornier lithotriptor MPL 9000-X for the treatment of vesical lithiasis. Int Urol Nephrol 30:703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Garcia Cardoso JV, Gonzalez Enguita C, Cabrera Perez J, et al (2003) Bladder calculi: is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy the first choice treatment? Arch Esp Urol 56:1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bhatia V, Biyani CS (1993) Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for vesical lithiasis: initial experience. Br J Urol 71:695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kojima Y, Yoshimura M, Hayashi Y, et al (1998) Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for vesical lithiasis. Urol Int 61:35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Salama MN, Tsuji M, Tamura M, et al (1998) Immediate effects of extracorporeal shock waves on the male genital system of rabbit: preliminary report. Scand J Urol Nephrol 32:251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Salah MA, Holman E, Khan AM, et al (2005) Percutaneous cystolithotomy for pediatric endemic bladder stone: experience with 155 cases from 2 developing countries. J Pediatr Surg 40:1628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sofer M, Kaver I, Greenstein A (2004) Refinements in treatment of large bladder calculi: simultaneous percutaneous suprapubic and transurethral cystolithotripsy. Urology 64:651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ather MH, Faruqui N, Abid F, et al (2002) Is there a difference in early morbidity in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) versus TURP with cystolitholapaxy and TURP with inguinal herniorrhaphy? Int Urol Nephrol 33:69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miller DC, Park JM (2003) Percutaneous cystolithotomy using a laparoscopic entrapment sac. Urology 62:333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mahran MR, Dawaba MS (2000) Cystolitholapaxy versus cystolithotomy in children. J Endourol 14:423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bhatia V, Biyani CS (1994) Vesical lithiasis: open surgery versus cystolithotripsy versus extracorporeal shock wave therapy. J Urol 151:660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bhatia V, Biyani CS (1994) A comparative study of cystolithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave therapy for bladder stones. Int Urol Nephrol 26:26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Razvi HA, Song TY, Denstedt JD (1996) Management of vesical calculi: comparison of lithotripsy devices. J Endourol 10:559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios G. Papatsoris
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ioannis Varkarakis
    • 1
  • Athanasios Dellis
    • 1
  • Charalambos Deliveliotis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Sismanoglio HospitalUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations