Urological Research

, 34:163 | Cite as

Bladder lithiasis: from open surgery to lithotripsy

  • Athanasios G. PapatsorisEmail author
  • Ioannis Varkarakis
  • Athanasios Dellis
  • Charalambos Deliveliotis


Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary calculi and usually occur because of bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic voiding dysfunction, infection, or foreign bodies. Children remain at high risk for developing bladder lithiasis in endemic areas. Males with prostate disease or relevant surgery and women who undergo anti-incontinence surgery are at a higher risk for developing vesical lithiasis. Open surgery remains the main treatment of bladder calculus in children. In adults, the classical treatment for bladder calculi is endoscopic transurethral disintegration with mechanical cystolithotripsy, ultrasound, electrohydraulic lithotripsy, Swiss Lithoclast, and holmium:YAG laser. Novel modifications of these treatment modalities have been used for large calculi. Open and endoscopic surgery requires anesthesia and hospitalization. Alternatively, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has been demonstrated to be simple, effective, and well tolerated in high-risk patients. Recently, simultaneous percutaeous suprapubic and transurethral cystolithotripsy has been tested as well as percutaneous cystolithotomy by using a laparoscopic entrapment sac.


Bladder Calculus Lithiasis Lithotripsy Shock wave lithotripsy 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios G. Papatsoris
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ioannis Varkarakis
    • 1
  • Athanasios Dellis
    • 1
  • Charalambos Deliveliotis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Sismanoglio HospitalUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

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