Urological Research

, 34:168 | Cite as

Gastrointestinal oxalic acid absorption in calcium-treated rats

  • Makoto MorozumiEmail author
  • Rayhan Zubair Hossain
  • Ken-ichi Yamakawa
  • Sanehiro Hokama
  • Saori Nishijima
  • Yoshinori Oshiro
  • Atsushi Uchida
  • Kimio Sugaya
  • Yoshihide Ogawa
Original Paper


We studied whether urinary oxalate excretion after an acute oral load of oxalic acid is influenced by concomitant administration of calcium in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing approximately 180 g were divided into six groups of five animals each. After inducing anesthesia, the animals were orally (via a gastrostomy) given 110 μmol of oxalic acid along with 0, 27.5, 55, 110, or 220 μmol of calcium (0, 27.5, 55, 110, or 220 μmol Ca group, respectively). Saline was given to the control group instead of oxalic acid. Urine specimens were collected before administration and then at hourly intervals up to 5 h afterward. Urinary oxalate and citrate levels were measured by capillary electrophoresis, while urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus levels were measured by ICP spectrophotometry. Urinary oxalate excretion peaked at 1 h after administration and was higher in the 0, 27.5, and 55 μmol Ca groups than in the control group. The urinary recovery of oxalate in these groups was 10–15%, while the recovery rate was less than 3% in other groups. Urinary Ca excretion showed no significant changes, either over time or between groups. Free oxalic acid is absorbed more readily from the gastrointestinal tract than calcium oxalate, while simultaneous administration of calcium appears to block intestinal oxalic acid absorption in a dose-dependent manner.


Oxalic acid Calcium Intestinal absorption Bioavailability 


  1. 1.
    Ogawa Y, Yonou H, Hokama S, Oda M, Morozumi M, Sugaya K (2003) Urinary saturation and risk factors for calcium oxalate stone disease based on spot and 24-hour urine specimens. Front Biosci 8:a167–a176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Williams HE, Wandzilak TR (1989) Oxalate synthesis, transport and hyperoxaluric syndromes. J Urol 141:742–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holmes RP, Goodman HO, Assimos DG (2001) Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion. Kidney Int 59:270–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robertson WG, Peacock M, Heyburn PJ, Marshall DH, Clark PB (1978) Risk factors in calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. Br J Urol 50:449–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nemeh MN, Weinman EJ, Kayne LH, Lee DBN (1996) Absorption and excretion of urate, oxalate, and amino acids. In: Coe FL, Favus MJ, Pak CYC, Parks JH, Preminger GM (eds) Kidney stones: medical and surgical management. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp. 303–319Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ogawa Y, Takahashi S, Kitagawa R (1984) Oxalate content in common Japanese foods. Hinyokikakiyo 30:305–310Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allison MJ, Cook HM, Milne DB, Gallagher S, Clayman RV (1986) Oxalate degradation by gastrointestinal bacteria from humans. J Nutr 116:455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hokama S, Honma Y, Toma C, Ogawa Y (2000) Oxalate degrading Enterococcus faecalis. Microbiol Immunol 44:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morozumi M, Ogawa Y (2000) Impact of dietary calcium and oxalate ratio on urinary stone formation in rats. Mol Urol 4:313–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hossain RZ, Ogawa Y, Morozumi M, Sugaya K, Hatano T (2003) Urinary oxalic acid excretion differs after oral loading of rats with various oxalate salts. Int J Urol 10:43–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Von Unruh GE, Voss S, Sauerbruch T, Hesse A (2004) Dependence of oxalate absorption on the daily calcium intake. J Am Soc Nephrol 15:1567–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liebman M, Chai W (1997) Effect of dietary calcium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1453–1459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanes DA, Weaver CM, Heaney RP, Wastney M (1999) Absorption of calcium oxalate does not require dissociation in rats. J Nutr 129:170–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holmes RP, Assimos DG (2004) The impact of dietary oxalate on kidney stone formation. Urol Res 32:311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hossain RZ, Morozumi M, Hokama S, Sugaya K, Hatano T, Ogawa Y (2001) Acute absorption after acute oral administration to rats. Int Med J 9:51–56Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marshall RW, Cochran M, Hodgkinson A (1972) Relationships between calcium and oxalic acid intake in the diet and their excretion in the urine of normal and renal-stone-forming subjects. Clin Sci 43:91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hess B, Jost C, Zipperle L, Takkinen R, Jaeger P (1998) High-calcium intake abolishes hyperoxaluria and reduces urinary crystallization during a 20-fold normal oxalate load in humans. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:2241–2247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nishiura JL, Martini LA, Mendonca CO, Schor N, Heilberg IP (2002) Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients. Braz J Med Biol Res 35:669–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siener R, Ebert D, Nicolay C, Hesse A (2003) Dietary risk factors for hyperoxaluria in calcium oxalate stone formers. Kidney Int 63:1037–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hossain RZ, Ogawa Y, Morozumi M, Hokama S, Sugaya K (2003) Milk and calcium prevent gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of oxalate in rats. Front Biosci 8:a117–a125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martineq-Palomo A, Meza I, Beaty G, Cereijido M (1980) Experimental modulation of occluding junctions in a cultured transporting epithelium. J Cell Biol 87:736–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee DB, Walling MW, Gafter U, Silis V, Coburn JW (1980) Calcium and inorganic phosphate transport in rat colon: dissociated response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Clin Invest 65:1326–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ (1993) A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 328:833–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barilla DE, Notz C, Kennedy D, Pak CY (1978) Renal oxalate excretion following oral oxalate loads in patients with ileal disease and with renal and absorptive hypercalciurias. Effect of calcium and magnesium. Am J Med 64:579–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pak CY (1973) Sodium cellulose phosphate: mechanism of action and effect on mineral metabolism. J Clin Pharmacol New Drugs 13:15–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wandzilak TR, Williams HE (1990) The hyperoxaluric syndromes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 19:851–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prenen JA, Boer P, Dorhout Mees EJ (1984) Absorption kinetics of oxalate from oxalate-rich food in man. Am J Clin Nutr 40:1007–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hanes DA, Weaver CM, Wastney ME (1999) Calcium and oxalic acid kinetics differ in rats. J Nutr 129:165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hautmann RE (1993) The stomach: a new and powerful oxalate absorption site in man. J Urol 149:1401–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hatch M, Freel RW (1995) Alterations in intestinal transport of oxalate in disease states. Scanning Microsc 9:1121–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kathpalia SC, Favus MJ, Coe FL (1984) Evidence for size and charge permselectivity of rat ascending colon. Effects of ricinoleate and bile salts on oxalic acid and neutral sugar transport. J Clin Invest 74:805–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makoto Morozumi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rayhan Zubair Hossain
    • 1
  • Ken-ichi Yamakawa
    • 1
  • Sanehiro Hokama
    • 1
  • Saori Nishijima
    • 1
  • Yoshinori Oshiro
    • 1
  • Atsushi Uchida
    • 1
  • Kimio Sugaya
    • 1
  • Yoshihide Ogawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

Personalised recommendations