Urological Research

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 146–150 | Cite as

Stone analysis

  • Gernot SchubertEmail author


The definition and the frequencies of the components of urinary stones are presented on the basis of more than 110,000 analyses. The stone morphologies are described. The methods of stone analysis X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and polarization microscopy and the most recent developments are presented. The benefits and disadvantages of different methods are compared. The results of ring trials show that the X-ray diffraction method is the best method with regard to correctness.


Urinary stone analysis X-ray diffraction Infrared spectroscopy Polarization microscopy Stone morphology Stone frequency 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vivantes Klinikum im FriedrichshainInstitute of Laboratory Diagnostics, Urinary Stone LaboratoryBerlinGermany

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