Urological Research

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 80–86 | Cite as

Inhibition of the growth of urinary calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals with aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata

  • Vimal S. Joshi
  • Bharat B. Parekh
  • Mihir J. Joshi
  • Ashok D. B. Vaidya
Original Paper


Urinary type calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CHPD) or Brushite crystals were grown by the single diffusion gel technique in silica hydro-gels. The gel framework acts as a three dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation and nutrients are supplied for their growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening model to study the growth and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of the putatively litholytic medicinal plants Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata on the growth of CHPD crystals was studied . The effects of artificial reference urine (ARU) and human urine (HU), along with the plant extracts, are also reported. Attempts were made to understand the role of these inhibitors on urinary crystal formation. HU, ARU, extracts of B. ligulata and T. terrestris exhibit appreciable amounts of inhibition, but B.ligulata and T.terrestris with ARU and HU do not show inhibition at all.


Urinary crystals Gel growth Urine Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate Extracts of Tribulus terrestris Extracts of Bergenia ligulata 



V.S.J. andM.J.J. are thankful to Prof. K.N. Iyer, Head, Physics Department, Saurashtra University, and the former Head Prof. B.S. Shah for their interest. The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, New Delhi, for financial support. They also thank the President, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, for encouraging scientific research in Ayurveda. The authors are thankful to Dr. Vrinda S. Thaker, Bio-science Department, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, for her important suggestions.


  1. 1.
    Menon M, Parulkar BG, Drach GW (1998) Campbell’s Urology, vol 3, 9th edn. W.B. Saunders, New York, p 2662Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolf JS, Stoller ML (1994) J Urol 152: 1609Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vermotten V (1942) J Urol 48:27Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Randall A (1936) New Engl J Med 214: 234Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henisch HK (1973) Crystal Growth in Gels. Pennsylvania State University Press,Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henisch HK, Dennis J, Hanoka JI (1965), J Phys Chem Solids 26: 493Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patel AR, Rao AV (1982) Bull Mater Sci 4: 527Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patel AR, Arora SK (1976) J Mater Sci 11: 843Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rajendra Babu, K., Deepa, M., Nair, M. K., and Vaidyan, V. K., (1998), Bull Mater.Sci., 21,121Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Natarajan S, Ramchandran E, Blisin Suja DK (1997) Cryst Res Technol 32: 553Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freeda TH, Mahadevan C (2000) Bull Mater Sci 23: 335Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Joshi VS, Joshi MJ (2001) Indian J Phys 75A: 159Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharma DC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ (2000) Data base on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, vol 1. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda, SiddaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gogte VM (2000) Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s SPARC, MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joshi VS, Joshi MJ (2003) Cryst Res Technol 38: 817Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown P, Ackerman D, Finlayson B (1989) J Cryst Growth 98: 285Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kruyt HR (1949) Colloid science. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ware JC (1929) The chemistry of the colloidal state. John WileyGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alexander AE, Johnson P (1949) Colloid science. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sharma BK (1991) Colloids chemistry. Goel, MeerutGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henisch HK, Garcia-Ruiz JM (1986) J Cryst Growth 75: 195Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Henisch HK, Garcia-Ruiz JM (1986) J Cryst Growth 75:203Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joseph, K. C. and Joshi, M. J., (2002), India J. Phys., 76A, 159Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Croft K, Adair JH, Bowyer R, Brockis JG (1984) Urinary stone. In: Ryall RL, et al. (eds) Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne, p 189Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ryall RL, Ryall RG, Marshall VR (1984) Urinary stone. Proceedings of the 2nd International Urinary Stone Conference, Singapore 1983, Churchill Livingstone, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Joshi VS, Joshi MJ (2003) Indian J Pure Appl Phys 41: 183Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ito H, Coe FL (1977) Am J Physiol 233: F455Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Joshi VS (2001) PhD thesis, Saurashtra University, RajkotGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Achilles W, Jocket U. Schaper A, Burk B, Riedmiller H (1995) Scanning Microsc 9: 586Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sand BN, Kumar A, Kumar N (1993) JRAR 14: 98Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anand R, Pathnaik GK, Kulshreshtha DK, Dhawan BN (1994) Indian J Exp 32: 548Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sangeeta D, Sidhu H, Thind SK, Nath R (1994) J Ethnopharmacol 44: 61Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yan W, Ohtani K, Kasai R, Yamasaki K (1996) Phytochemistry 42: 1417Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zafar R, Lalwani M (1989) Indian Drugs 27: 48Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mahato SB, Sahu NP, Pal BC (1978) J Indian Chem 50: 49Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tomowa MP, Botschewa DM, Zaikin WG, Walfson NS (1978) Planta Med 32: 223Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Purashothaman KK, Chandraselcharan S, Balakrishna K (1976) J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 11: 121Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fong HHS, Trojankova M, Trojanek J, Franksworth NR (1972) Lloydia 35: 117Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ren YJ, Chen HS, Yang GJ, Zhu H (1994) Acta Pharm Sinica 29: 204Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    British Herbal Pharmacopoeias 1996, British Herbal Association 1996 and Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Joint Publication, RRL, Jammu, Indian Drug Manufacturer Association 1998, vol 1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vimal S. Joshi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Bharat B. Parekh
    • 1
  • Mihir J. Joshi
    • 1
  • Ashok D. B. Vaidya
    • 2
  1. 1.Crystal Growth LaboratoryPhysics Department
  2. 2.Bhavan’s Swami Prakashananda Ayurveda Research CentreJuhu
  3. 3.Shri. R.K. Parikh Arts and Science CollegePetlad 388 450

Personalised recommendations