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Allergy in an Evolutionary Framework

  • Alvaro DaschnerEmail author
  • Juan González Fernández
Review

Abstract

Respiratory allergy including bronchial asthma and food allergy have gained epidemic character in the last decades in industrialized countries. Much has been learned with respect to the pathophysiology of allergic disease and this has facilitated specific therapies. Allergy is a chronic disease, and being so prevalent claims to search for evolutionary causes of the general susceptibility of humans as a species to react to environmental antigens in a Th2 type immune reaction with IgE production. In an evolutionary analysis of Allergy, necessary questions addressed in this review are “Why does IgE exist or why did IgE evolve?” as well as from the point of view of the mismatch hypothesis, “Why is there an Allergy epidemic?” Recent studies on the possible biological and protective role of IgE against parasites, arthropods, venoms or toxins are challenging the widely accepted definition of allergens as generally innocuous antigens. Combining the immunologic danger model and the toxin hypothesis for allergies, the allergic response could have evolved with an adaptive value and allergens could be proxies for other putative noxious agents. The last decades yielded with vast molecular data of allergens. With available bioinformatics tools, we therefore also describe that evolutionary theory could be applied to prevent allergy, estimate cross-reactivity, to design allergen-specific immunotherapy and to assess the risks of novel foods.

Keywords

Hygiene hypothesis Toxin hypothesis Allergy IgE Parasites Evolutionary medicine 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Servicio de AlergiaInstituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS)-Hospital Universitario de la PrincesaMadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad ComplutenseMadridSpain

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