Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 57–68 | Cite as

The Mitochondrial Genomes of Two Scallops, Argopecten irradians and Chlamys farreri (Mollusca: Bivalvia): The Most Highly Rearranged Gene Order in the Family Pectinidae

  • Jianfeng Ren
  • Xin Shen
  • Feng Jiang
  • Bin LiuEmail author


Molluscs in general and bivalves in particular, exhibit an extraordinary degree of mitochondrial gene order variation when compared with other metazoans. Here, we determined the mitochondrial genomes of two scallops Argopecten irradians and Chlamys farreri. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. irradians is 16,211 nts in length and the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of C. farreri is 20,789 nts in length. Both of the genomes contain 35 genes including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 21 transfer RNAs. In contrast to the typical animal mitochondrial genome, both of them lack one protein-coding gene atp8 and two trnSs, but show an additional copy of trnF in A. irradians and of trnM in C. farreri, respectively. Gene order and genome content were compared among the four sequenced scallops. Gene arrangement of C. farreri closely resembles that of Mizuhopecten yessoensis. However, two genomes of C. farreri and A. irradians show only three small identical gene blocks and two genomes of A. irradians and Placopecten magellanicus share only one gene block. Comparison of the gene arrangement demonstrated that the four scallops share few identical gene blocks although they belong to the same family. This feature is seldom observed in Metazoa, even in other molluscan classes. The dramatic gene rearrangement often occurs in bivalves, especially in marine bivalves. In addition, comparisons of genomic character among bivalves are also presented.


Argopecten irradians Chlamys farreri Pectinidae Mitochondrial genome Gene arrangement 



Cytochrome oxidase subunits I–III

nad1-6, nad4L

NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1–6, 4L

atp6, atp8

ATP synthase subunits 6 and 8


Apocytochrome b

rrnS, rrnL

Small and large subunit ribosomal RNA

transfer RNA (tRNA)

Genes designated by the one-letter code for the specified amino acid, in cases where there is more than one tRNA for a particular amino acid, they are differentiated by numeral and with anticodon


Mitochondrial DNA





We thank Linsheng Song for providing EST data of A. irradians, and Fan He, Aniza Ghazalli and Amal Mockbil for their valuable suggestions and critical reading of the manuscript. We also thank Lan Jiang and Jun Zhu for their assistance in bioinformatic analysis and Mengjie Qiu for DNA sequencing. This work was supported by the Bairen program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (to BL).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianfeng Ren
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xin Shen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Feng Jiang
    • 2
    • 4
  • Bin Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Beijing Institute of GenomicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.The Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.College of Animal ScienceYunnan Agricultural UniversityKunmingChina

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