Duplicate Gene Evolution Toward Multiple Fates at the Drosophila melanogaster HIP/HIP-Replacement Locus
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Hsc/Hsp70-interacting protein (HIP) is a rapidly evolving Hsp70 cofactor. Analyses of multiple Drosophila species indicate that the HIP gene is duplicated only in D. melanogaster. The HIP region, in fact, contains seven distinctly evolving duplicated genes. The regional duplication occurred in two steps, fixed rapidly, and illustrates multiple modes of duplicate gene evolution. HIP and its duplicate HIP-R are adaptively evolving in a manner unique to the region: they exhibit elevated divergence from other drosophilids and low polymorphism within D. melanogaster. HIP and HIP-R are virtually identical, share polymorphisms, and are subject to gene conversion. In contrast, two other duplicate genes in the region, CG33221 and GP-CG32779, are pseudogenes, and the chimeric gene Crg1 is subject to balancing selection. HIP and HIP-R are evolving rapidly and adaptively; however, positive selection is not sufficient to explain the molecular evolution of the region as a whole.