Evolution and Regulation of the Downstream Gene of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Naked Carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) from Lake Qinghai, China

  • Yi-Bin Cao
  • Xue-Qun ChenEmail author
  • Shen Wang
  • Yu-Xiang Wang
  • Ji-Zeng DuEmail author


The naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) is a native teleost of Lake Qinghai (altitude, 3.2 km) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α of Gymnocypris przewalskii was cloned and a phylogenetic tree for vertebrate HIF-1α was constructed. By analysis of maximum likelihood models of codon substitutions for HIF-1α, three positive sites in the branch lineages of crucian carp, eelpout, and flounder, and a higher proportion of neutral sites in naked carp, antarctic eelpout, rainbow trout, and grayling, were detected among all teleosts. It seems that low habitat temperatures relax the purifying selection of HIF-1α in these stenothermal coldwater fish, and both cold and hypoxic lake water contributed to the evolution of the HIF-1α gene in the naked carp. Furthermore, Glut 1 mRNA, a gene downstream from HIF-1α, has a time-course- and tissue-specific dependent response to hypoxic challenge.


Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α Hypoxia Qinghai Lake Naked carp Glucose transporter 



This work was supported by grants from the NSFC (Major Project No. 30393130, Project No. 30128016) and the National Basic Research Program “973” (No. 2006CB504100). We wish to thank Professor Iain C. Bruce, Department of Physiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China, for his help with the English editing of the manuscript. We also thank Yaqing Liu of the Northwest High Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, for his excellent logistical assistance.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neurobiology and Physiology, College of Life SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Division of Neurobiology and Physiology, School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of BiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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