Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 3, pp 292–297 | Cite as

Bayesian Coalescent Analysis Reveals a High Rate of Molecular Evolution in GB Virus C

  • Camila M. Romano
  • Paolo M. de A. Zanotto
  • Edward C. Holmes


GB virus C/hepatitis G (GBV-C) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. Despite replicating with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, some previous estimates of rates of evolutionary change in GBV-C suggest that it fixes mutations at the anomalously low rate of ∼10−7 nucleotide substitution per site, per year. However, these estimates were largely based on the assumption that GBV-C and its close relative GBV-A (New World monkey GB viruses) codiverged with their primate hosts over millions of years. Herein, we estimated the substitution rate of GBV-C using the largest set of dated GBV-C isolates compiled to date and a Bayesian coalescent approach that utilizes the year of sampling and so is independent of the assumption of codivergence. This revealed a rate of evolutionary change approximately four orders of magnitude higher than that estimated previously, in the range of 10−2 to 10−3 sub/site/year, and hence in line with those previously determined for RNA viruses in general and the Flaviviridae in particular. In addition, we tested the assumption of host-virus codivergence in GBV-A by performing a reconciliation analysis of host and virus phylogenies. Strikingly, we found no statistical evidence for host-virus codivergence in GBV-A, indicating that substitution rates in the GB viruses should not be estimated from host divergence times.


GB virus C Molecular clock Substitution rate Codivergence Phylogeny Coalescent theory 



We thank Dr. H. Hotta, Dr. A. Sathar, Dr. S. Muerhoff, Dr. J. Stapleton, Dr. S. Ross, Dr. K. Abe, Dr. P. Gobau, Dr. A. M. Bisceglie, and Dr. M. Tacácks for kindly providing additional information concerning the sequences used in this study. The research undertaken in this study was funded in part by NIH Grant GM080533-01.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camila M. Romano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paolo M. de A. Zanotto
    • 1
  • Edward C. Holmes
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Evolution and Bioinformatics, Department of MicrobiologyBiomedical Sciences Institute–ICBII, University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of BiologyThe Pennsylvania State University, Mueller LaboratoryUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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