Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 289–295 | Cite as

Experimental Evidence That GNA and TNA Were Not Sequential Polymers in the Prebiotic Evolution of RNA

  • Ying-Wei Yang
  • Su Zhang
  • Elizabeth O. McCullum
  • John C. ChaputEmail author


Systematic investigation into the chemical etiology of ribose has led to the discovery of glycerol nucleic acid (GNA) and threose nucleic acid (TNA) as possible progenitor candidates of RNA in the origins of life. Coupled with their chemical simplicity, polymers for both systems are capable of forming stable Watson-Crick antiparallel duplex structures with themselves and RNA, thereby providing a mechanism for the transfer of genetic information between successive genetic systems. Investigation into whether both polymers arose independently or descended from a common evolutionary pathway would provide additional constraints on models that describe the emergence of a hypothetical RNA world. Here we show by thermal denaturation that complementary GNA and TNA mixed sequence polymers are unable, even after prolonged incubation times, to adopt stable helical structures by intersystem cross-pairing. This experimental observation suggests that GNA and TNA, whose structures derive from one another, were not consecutive polymers in the same evolutionary pathway to RNA.


RNA world Glycerol nucleic acid Threose nucleic acid 



This work was supported by new laboratory start-up funds from The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University to J.C.C.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying-Wei Yang
    • 1
  • Su Zhang
    • 1
  • Elizabeth O. McCullum
    • 1
  • John C. Chaput
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.The Center for BioOptical Nanotechnology, The Biodesign Institute, and Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.TempeUSA

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