Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 61, Issue 6, pp 819–833 | Cite as

The Mitochondrial Genome of Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto (Nematoda: Enoplea): Considerable Economization in the Length and Structural Features of Encoded Genes

  • Y. He
  • J. Jones
  • M. Armstrong
  • F. Lamberti
  • M. MoensEmail author


The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the plant parasitic nematode Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto has been determined. At 12626bp it is the smallest metazoan mitochondrial genome reported to date. Genes are transcribed from both strands. Genes coding for 12 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 17 putative tRNAs (with the tRNA-C, I, N, S1, S2 missing) are predicted from the sequence. The arrangement of genes within the X. americanum mitochondrial genome is unique and includes gene overlaps. Comparisons with the mtDNA of other nematodes show that the small size of the X. americanum mtDNA is due to a combination of factors. The two mitochondrial rRNA genes are considerably smaller than those of other nematodes, with most of the protein encoding and tRNA genes also slightly smaller. In addition, five tRNAs genes are absent, lengthy noncoding regions are not present in the mtDNA, and several gene overlaps are present.


Xiphinema americanum Mitochondrial genome 



This work was funded by EU Contract SMT4-CT98-2229 and Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department Project SCR/561/00 (J.J.).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. He
    • 1
  • J. Jones
    • 2
  • M. Armstrong
    • 2
  • F. Lamberti
    • 3
  • M. Moens
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Gewasbescherming-CLOMerelbekeBelgium
  2. 2.Plant-Pathogen Interactions ProgrammeScottish Crop Research InstituteInvergowrieUK
  3. 3.Istituto di Nematologia AgrariaCNRBari

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