C6-Like and C3-Like Molecules from the Cephalochordate, Amphioxus, Suggest a Cytolytic Complement System in Invertebrates
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The mammalian immune system has cytotoxic mechanisms, both cellular and humoral, that destroy the membrane integrity of target cells. The main effector molecules of these cytolytic mechanisms—perforin, used by killer lymphocytes, and the membrane attack complex (MAC) components of the complement system—share a unique module called the MAC/perforin module. Until now, both immunological cytotoxicity and the MAC/perforin module have been reported only in jawed vertebrates. Here, we report the identification of a protein containing the MAC/perforin module from the invertebrate cephalochordate, amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri), using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of the notochord. The deduced amino acid sequence of this molecule is most similar to the primary structure of human complement component C6 and is designated AmphiC6. AmphiC6 shares a unique modular structure, including the MAC/perforin module, with human C6 and other MAC components. Another EST clone predicts the presence of a thioester-containing protein with the closest structural similarity to vertebrate C3 (therefore designated AmphiC3). AmphiC3 retains most of the functionally important residues of vertebrate C3 and is shown by phylogenetic analysis to be derived directly from the common ancestor of vertebrate C3, C4, and C5. Only opsonic activity has been assigned to the invertebrate complement system until now. Therefore, this is the first molecular evidence for complement-mediated immunological cytotoxicity in invertebrates.
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