Ultrasound-assisted definition of inferior border of the trapezius muscle in lower trapezius island flap reconstruction

  • Emre VuralEmail author
  • Santiago Gonzalez
  • Mauricio Moreno
  • Teresita Angtuaco
  • Donald Bodenner
Ideas and Innovations


Utilization of lower trapezius island flap (LTIF) provides an alternative in reconstruction of the select defects in head and neck region. When muscle bulk is needed under the skin paddle, it may be important to know the exact location of the inferior edge of the trapezius muscle (TM) in order to design the skin paddle accordingly. Due to the anatomic variations seen especially in the origin of trapezius muscle, there are no reliable surface landmarks to define the inferior edge of TM. We present a simple ultrasound-assisted technique of identifying the inferior border of TM preoperatively.

Level of Evidence: Level V, diagnostic study.


Trapezius Muscle Flap Ultrasound Reconstruction 


Compliance with ethical standards


There is no funding involved in this article.

Conflict of interest

The authors, Emre Vural, MD; Santiago Gonzalez, BS, BA; Mauricio Moreno, M.D.; Teresita Angtuaco, MD; and Donald Bodenner, MD, PhD, declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Patient consent

This article contains studies with human participants. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical approval

For this kind of study formal consent from a local ethics committee is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeriatricsUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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