Ultrasound-assisted definition of inferior border of the trapezius muscle in lower trapezius island flap reconstruction
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Utilization of lower trapezius island flap (LTIF) provides an alternative in reconstruction of the select defects in head and neck region. When muscle bulk is needed under the skin paddle, it may be important to know the exact location of the inferior edge of the trapezius muscle (TM) in order to design the skin paddle accordingly. Due to the anatomic variations seen especially in the origin of trapezius muscle, there are no reliable surface landmarks to define the inferior edge of TM. We present a simple ultrasound-assisted technique of identifying the inferior border of TM preoperatively.
Level of Evidence: Level V, diagnostic study.
KeywordsTrapezius Muscle Flap Ultrasound Reconstruction
Compliance with ethical standards
There is no funding involved in this article.
Conflict of interest
The authors, Emre Vural, MD; Santiago Gonzalez, BS, BA; Mauricio Moreno, M.D.; Teresita Angtuaco, MD; and Donald Bodenner, MD, PhD, declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article contains studies with human participants. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
For this kind of study formal consent from a local ethics committee is not required.
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