Congenital minor malformations of the soft tissue and muscle of the philtrum with associated nasal deformity
A 9-year-old girl presented with an abnormal muscle of the upper lip, a congenital philtral deformity associated with a short columella and a bifid nose. The deformity was most clearly seen with facial expression. Congenital nasal anomalies may occur alone or in combination with clefts of the lips and face. In this case, there was no palpable facial cleft. The contribution of the medial nasal processes to the formation of the nasal septum, columella, and philtrum and the proposed embryologic errors have been well described. A three-dimensional model of the philtrum and a transverse histological section from a third trimester fetus is illustrated. The smooth muscle tissues are formed by the embryonic connective tissue. A minor malformation of unilateral skin and soft tissue between columella and philtrum may be a focal fetal dysplasia and can be considered a type of facial cleft. The patient can be classified in a morphogenetic group with a slight focal fetal dysplasia.
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