Acta Informatica

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 613–698 | Cite as

A comparison of pebble tree transducers with macro tree transducers

  • Joost EngelfrietEmail author
  • Sebastian Maneth
Original Paper


The n-pebble tree transducer was recently proposed as a model for XML query languages. The four main results on deterministic transducers are: First, (1) the translation \(\tau\) of an n-pebble tree transducer can be realized by a composition of n+1 0-pebble tree transducers. Next, the pebble tree transducer is compared with the macro tree transducer, a well-known model for syntax-directed semantics, with decidable type checking. The -pebble tree transducer can be simulated by the macro tree transducer, which, by the first result, implies that (2) \(\tau\) can be realized by an (n+1)-fold composition of macro tree transducers. Conversely, every macro tree transducer can be simulated by a composition of 0-pebble tree transducers. Together these simulations prove that (3) the composition closure of n-pebble tree transducers equals that of macro tree transducers (and that of 0-pebble tree transducers). Similar results hold in the nondeterministic case. Finally, (4) the output languages of deterministic n-pebble tree transducers form a hierarchy with respect to the number n of pebbles.


Query Language Type Check Tree Transducer Decidable Type Composition Closure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LIACSLeiden University LeidenThe Netherlands

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