We report a case of human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. After the febrile period of parasite dissemination, the patient had meningeal involvement but normal CT. MRI showed the appearances of meningitis. After two periods of arsenical treatment, a severe encephalopathy occurred suggesting post-therapeutic reactive encephalitis (PTRE). Nevertheless, T2-weighted MRI showed no oedema, but focal bilateral high signal areas in the white matter. PTRE was excluded and a third course of treatment was undertaken. The lesions progressively disappeared.
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