, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 575–584 | Cite as

Altered coupling of spontaneous brain activities and brain temperature in patients with adolescent-onset, first-episode, drug-naïve schizophrenia

  • Zhiyong Zhao
  • Guojun Xu
  • Bin Sun
  • Xuzhou Li
  • Zhe Shen
  • Shangda Li
  • Yi Xu
  • Manli Huang
  • Dongrong XuEmail author
Functional Neuroradiology



A recent study has reported that schizophrenia patients show an uncoupled association between intraventricular brain temperature (BT) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF has been found to be closely coupled with spontaneous brain activities (SBAs) derived from resting-state BOLD fMRI metrics. Yet, it is unclear so far whether the relationship between the intraventricular BT and the SBAs may change in patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) compared with that in healthy controls (HCs).


The present study recruited 28 first-episode, drug-naïve AOS patients and 22 matched HCs. We measured the temperature of the lateral ventricles (LV) using diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry and measured SBAs using both regional homogeneity and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation methods. A nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to detect the difference in intraventricular BT between AOS patients and HCs with LV volume, age, and sex as covariates. We also evaluated the relationship between the intraventricular BT and the SBAs using partial correlation analysis controlling for LV volume, age, and sex.


We found that HCs showed a significant negative correlation between the intraventricular BT and the local SBAs in the bilateral putamina and left superior temporal gyrus, while such a correlation was absent in AOS patients. Additionally, no significant difference between the two groups was found in the intraventricular BT.


These findings suggest that AOS patients may experience an uncoupling between intraventricular BT and SBAs in several schizophrenia-related brain areas, which may be associated with the altered relationships among intraventricular BT, CBF, and metabolism.


Spontaneous brain activities Intraventricular brain temperature Adolescent-onset schizophrenia Diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry Resting-state fMRI 



The authors thank Dr. Michael Grunebaum, Columbia University, for his valuable help in writing this manuscript and his comments on clinical interpretations of this work.


This study was funded in part by the China National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFC1308500/2017YFC1308502 & No. 2016YFC1307005), the China National Science Foundation (No.81471734), the Basic Public Welfare Research Projects in Zhejiang Province (No. LGF18H090003) and the Major Subject of Zhejiang Province (No. 2015C03054).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants (or their parents/legal guardians) included in the study.

Supplementary material

234_2019_2181_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (612 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 611 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics (MOE & STCSM), Institute of Cognitive NeuroscienceEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry & New York State Psychiatric InstituteColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.College of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics (MOE & STCSM), Institute of Cognitive NeuroscienceEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital, The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management of Zhejiang ProvinceZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina

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