, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 29–36 | Cite as

Proximal internal carotid artery stenosis associates with diffuse wall thickening in petrous arterial segment of moyamoya disease patients: a three-dimensional magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

  • Xiaoyi Chen
  • Jian Wang
  • Yang Liu
  • Yongbo Yang
  • Fei Zhou
  • Xueping Li
  • Bing ZhangEmail author
  • Xihai Zhao
Diagnostic Neuroradiology



To investigate the association between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) luminal narrowing and diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in ipsilateral petrous ICA in moyamoya disease (MMD) patients.


Forty-one MMD (mean age 42.8 ± 11.0 years, 19 males) and 36 atherosclerotic patients (mean age 61.5 ± 7.1 years, 31 males) and 41 healthy controls were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The luminal narrowing of proximal ICA was evaluated by the diameter ratio of ICA to common carotid artery (DRICA/CCA). The wall thickness of petrous ICA was measured on T1-VISTA images. The enhancement degree of petrous ICA was recorded and graded into four grades (none to marked) on the CE-T1-VISTA images. The correlation between wall thickness in petrous ICA and DRICA/CCA was analyzed.


In total, 81 arteries of MMD patients and 64 arteries of atherosclerotic patients were included for analysis. The DRICA/CCA was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA in MMD (r = − 0.434, P < 0.001) and atherosclerotic groups (r = − 0.604, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that odds ratio (OR) of DRICA/CCA was 4.433 (95% CI 1.980–9.925, P < 0.001) and 2.212 (95% CI 1.253–3.905, P = 0.006) in MMD and atherosclerotic groups in discriminating petrous ICA DWT after adjusting for confounding factors. An increasing trend was found in prevalence of DWT and wall thickness with enhancement grades in petrous ICA in MMD (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01) and atherosclerotic groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001), respectively.


The proximal ICA luminal narrowing is significantly associated with wall thickness and diffuse wall thickening in ipsilateral petrous ICA in patients with carotid steno-occlusive diseases regardless of MMD or atherosclerosis.


Moyamoya disease Internal carotid artery Luminal narrowing Vessel wall edema Magnetic resonance imaging 


Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81771825, 81720108022, 91649116, 81571040), the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (D171100003017003) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017YFC1307904).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

We declare that all procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyBeijing Geriatric HospitalBeijingChina
  2. 2.Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical EngineeringTsinghua University School of MedicineBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Neurosurgerythe Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical SchoolNanjingChina
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyThe First People’s Hospital of YangzhouYangzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of Radiologythe Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical SchoolNanjingChina

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