Quantitative sodium imaging and gliomas: a feasibility study
Recent advances in sodium brain MRI have allowed for increased signal-to-noise ratio, faster imaging, and the ability of differentiating intracellular from extracellular sodium concentration, opening a new window of opportunity for clinical application. In gliomas, there are significant alterations in sodium metabolism, including increase in the total sodium concentration and extracellular volume fraction. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of using sodium MRI quantitative measurements to evaluate gliomas.
Eight patients with treatment-naïve gliomas were scanned at 3 T with a homemade 1H/23Na head coil, generating maps of pseudo-intracellular sodium concentration (C1), pseudo-extracellular volume fraction (α2), apparent intracellular sodium concentration (aISC), and apparent total sodium concentration (aTSC). Measurements were made within the contralateral normal-appearing putamen, contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), and solid tumor regions (area of T2-FLAIR abnormality, excluding highly likely areas of edema, cysts, or necrosis). Paired samples t test were performed comparing NAWM and putamen and between NAWM and solid tumor.
The normal-appearing putamen demonstrated significantly higher values for aTSC, aISC, C1 (p < 0.001), and α2 (p = 0.002) when compared to those of NAWM. The mean average of all solid tumors, when compared to that of NAWM, demonstrated significantly higher values of aTSC and α2 (p < 0.001), and significantly lower values of aISC (p = 0.02) for each patient. There was no significant difference between the values of C1 (p = 0.19).
Quantitative sodium measurements can be done in glioma patients and also has provided further evidence that total sodium and extracellular volume fraction are increased in gliomas.
KeywordsSodium MRI Glioma
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH): 1R03AR065763 (GM), 1R01NS097494 (GM) and 1R21CA213169 (GM), and the NIBIB for the P41 (CAI2R), a NIBIB Biomedical Technology Resource Center (NIH: 1P41EB017183) program grant.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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