Craniofacial CT findings of Gorham–Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly
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The present study aimed to assess the craniofacial CT imaging features for differentiating between Gorham–Stout disease (GSD) and generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA).
Seven patients with GSD and four patients with GLA were included in this study. All patients underwent CT examinations that encompassed the craniofacial bones. The presence, distribution, and type of craniofacial osteolysis were assessed. The clinical symptoms that were associated with craniofacial osteolysis were also reviewed.
Craniofacial osteolysis including cranial osteolysis was seen in four of seven (57 %) patients with GSD and in three of four (75 %) patients with GLA. Facial osteolysis was seen in two (29 %) patients with GSD, but this was not observed in patients with GLA. Among patients with craniofacial osteolysis, those with GSD showed diffuse involvement, whereas those with GLA showed multifocal involvement. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD could be classified into three patterns: medullary involvement, thinning bone, and disappearing bone. The clinical symptoms of craniofacial osteolysis were observed in all patients with GSD but were not present in patients with GLA.
Craniofacial involvement was observed in both groups. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD showed diffuse involvement with clinical symptoms, whereas that of GLA showed multifocal involvement without clinical symptoms.
KeywordsGorham–Stout disease Generalized lymphatic anomaly Craniofacial Osteolysis CT
Compliance with ethical standards
We declare that all human and animal studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. We declare that all patients gave informed consent prior to inclusion in this study.
Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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