, Volume 58, Issue 8, pp 801–806 | Cite as

Craniofacial CT findings of Gorham–Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly

  • Hiroki Kato
  • Michio Ozeki
  • Toshiyuki Fukao
  • Masayuki Matsuo
Head and Neck Radiology



The present study aimed to assess the craniofacial CT imaging features for differentiating between Gorham–Stout disease (GSD) and generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA).


Seven patients with GSD and four patients with GLA were included in this study. All patients underwent CT examinations that encompassed the craniofacial bones. The presence, distribution, and type of craniofacial osteolysis were assessed. The clinical symptoms that were associated with craniofacial osteolysis were also reviewed.


Craniofacial osteolysis including cranial osteolysis was seen in four of seven (57 %) patients with GSD and in three of four (75 %) patients with GLA. Facial osteolysis was seen in two (29 %) patients with GSD, but this was not observed in patients with GLA. Among patients with craniofacial osteolysis, those with GSD showed diffuse involvement, whereas those with GLA showed multifocal involvement. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD could be classified into three patterns: medullary involvement, thinning bone, and disappearing bone. The clinical symptoms of craniofacial osteolysis were observed in all patients with GSD but were not present in patients with GLA.


Craniofacial involvement was observed in both groups. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD showed diffuse involvement with clinical symptoms, whereas that of GLA showed multifocal involvement without clinical symptoms.


Gorham–Stout disease Generalized lymphatic anomaly Craniofacial Osteolysis CT 


Compliance with ethical standards

We declare that all human and animal studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. We declare that all patients gave informed consent prior to inclusion in this study.

Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroki Kato
    • 1
  • Michio Ozeki
    • 2
  • Toshiyuki Fukao
    • 2
  • Masayuki Matsuo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyGifu University School of MedicineGifuJapan
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsGifu University School of MedicineGifuJapan

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