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Neuroradiology

, Volume 57, Issue 10, pp 973–989 | Cite as

Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

  • Giulio ZuccoliEmail author
  • Michael Paul Yannes
  • Raffaele Nardone
  • Ariel Bailey
  • Amy Goldstein
Invited Review

Abstract

Introduction

In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami.

Methods

A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Results

We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami.

Conclusion

Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis.

Keywords

Basal ganglia Thalamus Pediatrics MRI 

Notes

Acknowledgments

In memory of my dear friend, Massimo Gallucci, Professor of Neuroradiology.

Ethical standards and patient consent

We declare that this manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giulio Zuccoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Paul Yannes
    • 2
  • Raffaele Nardone
    • 3
  • Ariel Bailey
    • 4
  • Amy Goldstein
    • 5
  1. 1.Section of NeuroradiologyChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMCPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler KlinikParacelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  5. 5.Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and NeurogeneticsChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMCPittsburghUSA

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