, Volume 52, Issue 10, pp 921–928 | Cite as

In vivo hemodynamic analysis of intracranial aneurysms obtained by magnetic resonance fluid dynamics (MRFD) based on time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI

  • Haruo Isoda
  • Yasuhide Ohkura
  • Takashi Kosugi
  • Masaya Hirano
  • Hiroyasu Takeda
  • Hisaya Hiramatsu
  • Shuhei Yamashita
  • Yasuo Takehara
  • Marcus T. Alley
  • Roland Bammer
  • Norbert J. Pelc
  • Hiroki Namba
  • Harumi Sakahara
Interventional Neuroradiology



Hemodynamics is thought to play a very important role in the initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of our study was to perform in vivo hemodynamic analysis of unruptured intracranial aneurysms of magnetic resonance fluid dynamics using time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI (4D-Flow) at 1.5 T and to analyze relationships between hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI).


This study included nine subjects with 14 unruptured aneurysms. 4D-Flow was performed by a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner with a head coil. We calculated in vivo streamlines, WSS, and OSI of intracranial aneurysms based on 4D-Flow with our software. We evaluated the number of spiral flows in the aneurysms and compared the differences in WSS or OSI between the vessel and aneurysm and between whole aneurysm and the apex of the spiral flow.


3D streamlines, WSS, and OSI distribution maps in arbitrary direction during the cardiac phase were obtained for all intracranial aneurysms. Twelve aneurysms had one spiral flow each, and two aneurysms had two spiral flows each. The WSS was lower and the OSI was higher in the aneurysm compared to the vessel. The apex of the spiral flow had a lower WSS and higher OSI relative to the whole aneurysm.


Each intracranial aneurysm in this study had at least one spiral flow. The WSS was lower and OSI was higher at the apex of the spiral flow than the whole aneurysmal wall.


Intracranial aneurysm Wall shear stress Oscillatory shear index Cine phase-contrast MR imaging Magnetic resonance fluid dynamics 



This study was supported by the grant from the Information-Technology Promotion Agency, Japan.

Conflict of interest statement

Dr. H. Isoda receives research funds from the Renaissance of Technology Corporation.

Supplementary material

234_2009_635_MOESM1_ESM.m1v (1.8 mb)
Animation 1 3D streamlines of a right BA-SCA aneurysm. 3D streamlines of a BA-SCA aneurysm demonstrate that the aneurysm has spiral flow with its apex at its right caudal aspect of the aneurysm and has the low flow velocities at the apex. (M1V 1871 kb)


  1. 1.
    Imbesi SG, Kerber CW (1999) Analysis of slipstream flow in two ruptured intracranial cerebral aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 20:1703–1705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mantha A, Karmonik C, Benndorf G et al (2006) Hemodynamics in a cerebral artery before and after the formation of an aneurysm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:1113–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shojima M, Oshima M, Takagi K et al (2004) Magnitude and role of wall shear stress on cerebral aneurysm: computational fluid dynamic study of 20 middle cerebral artery aneurysms. Stroke 35:2500–2505CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meng H, Wang Z, Hoi Y et al (2007) Complex hemodynamics at the apex of an arterial bifurcation induces vascular remodeling resembling cerebral aneurysm initiation. Stroke 38:1924–1931CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tateshima S, Murayama Y, Villablanca JP et al (2003) In vitro measurement of fluid-induced wall shear stress in unruptured cerebral aneurysms harboring blebs. Stroke 34:187–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hassan T, Timofeev EV, Saito T et al (2004) Computational replicas: anatomic reconstructions of cerebral vessels as volume numerical grids at three-dimensional angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:1356–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ujiie H, Tachibana H, Hiramatsu O et al (1999) Effects of size and shape (aspect ratio) on the hemodynamics of saccular aneurysms: a possible index for surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery 45:119–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jou LD, Wong G, Dispensa B et al (2005) Correlation between lumenal geometry changes and hemodynamics in fusiform intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:2357–2363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jou LD, Lee DH, Morsi H et al (2008) Wall shear stress on ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms at the internal carotid artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:1761–1767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boussel L, Rayz V, McCulloch C et al (2008) Aneurysm growth occurs at region of low wall shear stress: patient-specific correlation of hemodynamics and growth in a longitudinal study. Stroke 39:2997–3002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Valencia A, Morales H, Rivera R et al (2008) Blood flow dynamics in patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models: the relationship between wall shear stress and aneurysm area index. Med Eng Phys 30:329–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cebral JR, Castro MA, Burgess JE, Pergolizzi RS, Sheridan MJ, Putman CM (2005) Characterization of cerebral aneurysms for assessing risk of rupture by using patient-specific computational hemodynamics models. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:2550–2559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Szikora I, Paal G, Ugron A et al (2008) Impact of aneurysmal geometry on intra aneurysmal flow: a computerized flow simulation study. Neuroradiology 50:411–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ohshima T, Miyachi S, Hattori K et al (2008) Risk of aneurysmal rupture: the importance of neck orifice positioning-assessment using computational flow simulation. Neurosurgery 62:767–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Markl M, Chan FP, Alley MT et al (2003) Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 17:499–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Isoda H, Hirano M, Takeda H et al (2006) Visualization of hemodynamics in a silicon aneurysm model using time-resolved, 3D, phase-contrast MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:1119–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamashita S, Isoda H, Hirano M et al (2007) Visualization of hemodynamics in intracranial arteries using time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 25:473–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bammer R, Hope TA, Aksoy M et al (2007) Time-resolved 3D quantitative flow MRI of the major intracranial vessels: initial experience and comparative evaluation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T in combination with parallel imaging. Magn Reson Med 57:127–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wetzel S, Meckel S, Frydrychowicz A et al (2007) In vivo assessment and visualization of intracranial arterial hemodynamics with flow-sensitized 4D MR imaging at 3 T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isoda H, Ohkura Y, Kosugi T et al. Comparison of hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms between MR fluid dynamics using 3D cine phase-contrast MRI and MR based computational fluid dynamics. Neuroradiology (in press)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shimai H, Yokota H, Nakamura S, et al (2005) Extraction from biological volume data of a region of interest with non-uniform intensity. In: Sumi K (ed) Optomechatronic machine vision. Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 6051, 605115Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lorensen WE, Cline HE (1987) Marching cubes: a high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. Comput Graph 21:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Press W, Teukolsky S, Vetterling W et al (1992) Numerical recipes in C. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malek AM, Alper SL, Izumo S (1999) Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis. JAMA 282:2035–2042CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Masaryk AM, Frayne R, Unal O et al (1999) In vitro and in vivo comparison of three MR measurement methods for calculating vascular shear stress in the internal carotid artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 20:237–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cheng CP, Parker D, Taylor CA (2002) Quantification of wall shear stress in large blood vessels using Lagrangian interpolation functions with cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Biomed Eng 30:1020–1032CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ku DN, Giddens DP, Zarins CK et al (1985) Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress. Arteriosclerosis 5:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    He X, Ku DN (1996) Pulsatile flow in the human left coronary artery bifurcation: average conditions. J Biomech Eng 118:74–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sho E, Sho M, Singh TM et al (2001) Blood flow decrease induces apoptosis of endothelial cells in previously dilated arteries resulting from chronic high blood flow. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21:1139–1145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baltes C, Kozerke S, Hansen MS et al (2005) Accelerating cine phase-contrast flow measurements using k-t BLAST and k-t SENSE. Magn Reson Med 54:1430–1438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moftakhar R, Aagaard-Kienitz B, Johnson K (2007) Noninvasive measurement of intra-aneurysmal pressure and flow pattern using phase contrast with vastly undersampled isotropic projection imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:1710–1714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haruo Isoda
    • 1
  • Yasuhide Ohkura
    • 2
  • Takashi Kosugi
    • 2
  • Masaya Hirano
    • 3
  • Hiroyasu Takeda
    • 1
  • Hisaya Hiramatsu
    • 4
  • Shuhei Yamashita
    • 1
  • Yasuo Takehara
    • 1
  • Marcus T. Alley
    • 5
  • Roland Bammer
    • 5
  • Norbert J. Pelc
    • 5
  • Hiroki Namba
    • 4
  • Harumi Sakahara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan
  2. 2.Renaissance of Technology CorporationHamamatsuJapan
  3. 3.GE Healthcare JapanTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan
  5. 5.Department of Radiology, Radiological Sciences LaboratoryStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations