Interactions of Primary Amphipathic Vector Peptides with Membranes. Conformational Consequences and Influence on Cellular Localization
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The conformations of two peptides produced by the combinations of a nuclear localization sequence and a sequence issued from the fusion protein gp41 of HIV 1 have been analyzed both in solution and in membranes or in membrane mimicking environments. Both are shown to be nonordered in water, α-helical when incorporated into SDS micelles where the helical domain concerns the hydrophobic part of the peptides. Interactions with lipids induce the formation of β-sheet and the lipid-peptide interactions are governed by the nature of the lipid polar headgroups. A monolayer study shows that replacement of the sequence separating the two sequences with an arginine favors the lipid-peptide interactions which may contribute to the understanding of the different, nuclear and membrane associated, cellular localizations of the peptides.
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