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The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 252, Issue 6, pp 527–539 | Cite as

Direct Drug Targeting into Intracellular Compartments: Issues, Limitations, and Future Outlook

  • Gamaleldin I. HarisaEmail author
  • Tarek M. Faris
Topical Review

Abstract

Intracellular compartment drug delivery is a promising strategy for the treatment of diseases. By this way, medicines can delivered to particular intracellular compartments. This maximizes the therapeutic efficacy and safety of medicines, particularly of anticancer and antiviral drugs. Intracellular compartment drug delivery is either indirectly by targeting of cell nucleus as central compartment of the cell or directly through the targeting of compartments itself. Drugs or nanoshuttles labeled with compartment’s localization signal represent a smart tactic for subcellular compartment targeting. There are several boundaries prevent the arrival of shuttles to the specified intracellular compartments. These boundaries include selective permeability of biomembranes, efflux transporters, and lysosomes. The utilization of specific ligands during design of drug delivery nanoshuttles permits the targeting of specified intracellular compartment. Therefore drugs targeting could correct the diseases associated organelles. This review highlights the direct targeting of the medicines into subcellular compartment as a promising therapeutic strategy.

Keywords

Biological zip code Nanoshuttles Mitochondria Proteosome Peroxisome 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors extend their appreciation to the Vice Research Chairs at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia for funding this work through Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industry, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, for funding the work through Grant Number G-2019-1.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industry, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, College of PharmacyAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of PharmacyAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt

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