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Regulatory Roles of Peroxisomal Metabolic Pathways Involved in Musk Secretion in Muskrats

  • Meishan Zhang
  • Shuang Yang
  • Minghui Shi
  • Shumiao Zhang
  • Tianxiang Zhang
  • Yimeng Li
  • Shanghua Xu
  • Muha Cha
  • Yuping Meng
  • Shaobi Lin
  • Juan Yu
  • Xuxin Li
  • Ali Mu
  • Defu HuEmail author
  • Shuqiang LiuEmail author
Article

Abstract

In this study, we analyzed the main components of muskrat musk by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the results showed that muskrat musk contained fatty acids (29.32%), esters (31.89%), cholesterol (4.38%), cyclic ketones (16.31%), alcohols (6.42%) and other compounds, among which 9-octadecenoic acid accounted for 4.89%. We also analyzed the genes of the metabolic pathway in the scent gland at the transcriptomic level during musk-secreting and non-secreting seasons by RNA-seq (RNA sequencing). We detected 21 genes in the peroxisomal metabolic pathways, including PEX14(peroxin-14) and ACOX3(acyl-CoA oxidase), which exhibited significant differential expression between the musk-secreting season and the non-secreting season (p < 0.05). The RNA-seq results for these genes were validated by reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR) for both seasons. In addition, we examined changes in the composition of muskrat musk from the glandular cells of scent glands cultured in vitro after RNA interference-mediated silencing of 2 differentially expressed genes, ACOX3 and HSD17B4(D-bifunctional protein, DBP). The 9-Octadecenoic acid content in muskrat musk decreased significantly following the silencing of ACOX3 and HSD17B4(D-bifunctional protein, DBP). These results suggest that peroxisomal metabolic pathways play important roles in the regulation of musk secretion in scent glands in the muskrat.

Keywords

Muskrat scent gland Peroxisomes Signaling pathway 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National key R&D program of China (Grant No. 2018YFD0502204) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Postdoctoral Grant No. 168033; Grant No. 2016M591094). The experimental facilities were provided by the Innovation Laboratory of the College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have nothing to disclose. There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meishan Zhang
    • 1
  • Shuang Yang
    • 1
  • Minghui Shi
    • 1
  • Shumiao Zhang
    • 2
  • Tianxiang Zhang
    • 1
  • Yimeng Li
    • 1
  • Shanghua Xu
    • 1
  • Muha Cha
    • 1
  • Yuping Meng
    • 2
  • Shaobi Lin
    • 3
  • Juan Yu
    • 3
  • Xuxin Li
    • 3
  • Ali Mu
    • 4
  • Defu Hu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shuqiang Liu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Nature ConservationBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Milu Ecological Research CenterBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Zhangzhou Pien Tze Huang Pharmaceutical Co., LtdFujianPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Qingdao Feed and Veterinary Drug Inspection StationQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China

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