The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 250, Issue 5, pp 455–459 | Cite as

The Prolidase Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Nitric Oxide Levels of Bladder Tissues with or Without Tumor in Patients with Bladder Cancer

  • İlhan Gecit
  • Recep Eryılmaz
  • Servet Kavak
  • İsmail Meral
  • Halit Demir
  • Necip Pirinççi
  • Mustafa Güneş
  • Kerem Taken


This study was designed to evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and also prolidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in malignant and benign cancers of bladder tissue. A total of 59 patients admitted to our clinic due to microscopic or macroscopic haematuria, were prospectively included in the study. Because of some reasons (no request to participate in the study, the inability to reach, other malignancies, alcohol consumption, metabolic disease), eight patients were excluded from study. Of the 51 patients, 25 were bladder tumor patients, and 26 were patients without cancers. The bladder tissue samples were obtained from all patients under anesthesia (spinal, epidural or general) for the measurement of MDA, GSH and NO levels, and prolidase, GSH-Px and SOD enzyme activities. Among the patients with bladder cancers, 7 patients were females and 18 patients were males, with an average age of 68.4 ± 2.49. Among patients without tumors, 6 patients were females and 20 patients were males, with an average age of 58 ± 2.05. In patients with bladder tumors, the oxidants (MDA, NO, prolidase) were higher, and the antioxidants (SOD, GSH, GSH-Px) were lower than those in patients without tumors. It was concluded that the oxygen free radicals play a role in the etiology of bladder cancers similar to many other tumors and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we assume that antioxidants may provide benefits in the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.


Cancer Bladder Status antioxidants Superoxide dismutase Nitric oxide Oxidative stress 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.


  1. Arikan S, Akcay T, Konukoglu D, Obek C, Kural AR (2005) The relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bladder cancer. Neoplasma 52(4):314–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arioz DT, Camuzcuoglu H, Toy H, Kurt S, Celik H, Aksoy N (2009) Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in patients with stage I endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 19(7):1244–1247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Batcioglu K, Mehmet N, Ozturk IC et al (2006) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in stomach cancer. Cancer Invest 24:18–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beutler E, Kuhl W (1975) Subunit structure of human hexosaminidase verified: interconvertibility of hexosaminidase isozymes. Nature (London) 258:262–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bukan N, Sözen S, Coşkun U, Sancak B, Günel N, Bozkirli I et al (2003) Serum interleukin-18 and nitric oxide activity in bladder carcinoma. Eur Cytokine Net 14(3):163–167Google Scholar
  6. Camuzcuoglu H, Arioz DT, Toy H, Kurt S, Celik H, Aksoy N et al (2009) Assessment of preoperative serum prolidase activity in epithelial ovarian cancer. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 147(1):97–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cechowska-Pasko M, Pałka J, Wojtukiewicz MZ (2006) Enhanced prolidase activity and decreased collagen content in breast cancer tissue. Int J Exp Pathol 87:289–296CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui S, Reichner JS, Mateo RB, Albina JE (1994) Activated murine macrophages induce apoptosis in tumor cells through nitricoxide-dependent or independent mechanisms. Cancer Res 1 54(9):2462–2467Google Scholar
  9. Eijan AM, Davel K, Rueda H, Rozenberg G, De Lustig ES, Jasnis MA (1998) Differential nitric oxide release and sensitivity to injury in different murine mammary tumor cell lines. Int J Mol Med 2(5):625–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellidag HY, Eren E, Aydın O, Akgol E, Yalcinkaya S, Sezer C et al (2013) Ischemia modified albumin levels and oxidative stress in patients with bladder cancer. Asian Pacifi J Cancer Prevent 14(5):2759–2763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gecit I, Aslan M, Gunes M, Pirincci N, Esen R, Demir H et al (2012) Serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide levels in patients with bladder cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 138(5):739–743CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Guszczyn T, Sobolewski K (2004) Deregulation of collagen metabolism in human stomach cancer. Pathobiology 71(6):308–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Guyton KZ, Kensler TW (1993) Oxidative mechanisms in carcinogenesis. Br Med Bullet 4983:523–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jaruga P, Zastawny TH, Skokowski J (1994) Oxidative DNA base damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in human lung cancer. FEBS Lett 341(1):59–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Karna E, Surazynski A, Palka J (2000) Collagen metabolism disturbances are accompanied by an increase in prolidase activity in lung carcinoma planoepitheliale. Int J Exp Pathol 81(5):341–347CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Kleiner DE, Stetler-Stevenson WG (1999) Matrix metalloproteinases and metastasis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 43(Suppl):S42–S51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Knowles RG, Moncada S (1994) Nitric oxide synthase in mammals. Biochem J 198:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu G, Nakayama K, Awata S et al (2007) Prolidase isoenzymes in the rat: their organ distribution, developmental change and specific inhibitors. Pediatr Res 62:54–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Macvicar AD (2000) Bladder cancer staging. BJU Int 86:111–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Myara I, Charpentier C, Lemonnier A (1982) Optimal conditions for prolidase assay by proline colorimetric determination: application to imminodipeptiduria. Clin Chim Acta 125:193–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Nishikawa M (2008) Reactive oxygen species in tumor metastasis. Cancer Lett 266:53–59. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.02.031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Oberley LW, Bize IB, Sahu SK (1978) Superoxide dismutase activity of normal murine liver, regenerating liver, and H6 hepatoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 61(2):375–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Paglia DE, Valentina WN (1967) studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 70:158–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Palka J, Surazynski A, Karna E, Orlowski K, Puchalski Z, Pruszynski K et al (2002) Prolidase activity disregulation in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 49(48):1699–1703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Negri E, Malvezzi M, La Vecchia C (2006) Mechanisms of disease: the epidemiology of bladder cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol 3(6):327–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun Y (1990) Free radicals, antioxidant enzymes and carcinogenesis. Free Radical Biol Med 8(6):583–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Surazynski A, Donald SP, Cooper SK, Whiteside MA, Salnikow K, Liu Y et al (2008) Extracellular matrix and HIF-1 signaling: the role of prolidase. Int J Cancer 122(6):1435–1440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Templar J, Kon SP, Milligan TP, Newman DJ, Raftery MJ (1999) Increased plasma malondialdehyde levels in glomerular disease as determined by a fully validated HPLC method. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:946–951CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Tracey JB, Tannenbaum SI, Kavanagh MJ (1995) Applying trained skills on the job: the importance of the work environment. J Appl Psychol 80(2):239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tsuruda T, Costello-Boerrigter LC, Burnett JC Jr (2004) Matrix metalloproteinases: pathways of induction by bioactive molecules. Heart Fail Rev 9:53–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Türkdoğan MK, Akman N, Tuncer İ, Dilek FH, Akman H, Memik F et al (1998) The high prevalence of esophageal and gastric cancers in Eastern Turkey. Med Biol Environ 26(1):79–84Google Scholar
  33. Wang C, Yu J, Wang H, Zhang J, Wu N (2014) Lipid peroxidation and altered anti-oxidant status in breast adenocarcinoma patients. Drug Research 45:78–98Google Scholar
  34. Wolf H, Haeckel C, Roessner A (2000) Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in human urinary bladder cancer. Virchows Arch 437:662–666CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wynder EL, Goldsmith R (1977) The epidemiology of bladder cancer: a second look. Cancer 40:1246–1268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yalcin O, Karatas F, Erulas FA, Ozdemir E (2004) The levels of glutathione peroxidase, vitamin A, E, C and lipid peroxidation in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Br J Urol Int 93(6):863–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yoshimura R, Wada S, Matsuyama M, Hase T, Goto T, Tanaka T et al (2004) Urinary extracellular matrix measurement as a reliable and cost effective diagnostic tool for bladder tumors. Int J Mol Med 13(1):127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Yoshioka T, Kawada K, Shimada T et al (1979) Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanisms against activated oxygen toxicity in the blood. Am J Obster Gynecol. 135:372–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zeegers MP, Kellen E, Buntinx F, van den Brandt PA (2004) The association between smoking, beverage consumption, diet and bladder cancer: a systematic literature review. World J Urol 21:392–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • İlhan Gecit
    • 1
  • Recep Eryılmaz
    • 2
  • Servet Kavak
    • 3
  • İsmail Meral
    • 4
  • Halit Demir
    • 5
  • Necip Pirinççi
    • 6
  • Mustafa Güneş
    • 2
  • Kerem Taken
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicineİnonu UniversityMalatyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Faculty of MedicineYuzuncu Yil UniversityVanTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biophysics, Faculty of MedicineMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineBezmialem Vakif UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceYuzuncu Yil UniversityVanTurkey
  6. 6.Department of Urology, Faculty of MedicineFırat UniversityElazığTurkey

Personalised recommendations