The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 245, Issue 9, pp 509–520 | Cite as

In Vivo Muscle Electroporation Threshold Determination: Realistic Numerical Models and In Vivo Experiments

  • Selma Čorović
  • Lluis M. Mir
  • Damijan Miklavčič


In vivo electroporation is used as an effective technique for delivery of therapeutic agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs or DNA into target tissue cells for different biomedical purposes. In order to successfully electroporate a target tissue, it is essential to know the local electric field distribution produced by an application of electroporation voltage pulses. In this study three-dimensional finite element models were built in order to analyze local electric field distribution and corresponding tissue conductivity changes in rat muscle electroporated either transcutaneously or directly (i.e., two-plate electrodes were placed either on the skin or directly on the skeletal muscle after removing the skin). Numerical calculations of electroporation thresholds and conductivity changes in skin and muscle were validated with in vivo measurements. Our model of muscle with skin also confirms the in vivo findings of previous studies that electroporation “breaks” the skin barrier when the applied voltage is above 50 V.


Muscle electroporation Skin electroporation Electric field Numerical model Electrochemotherapy Gene therapy Vaccination 



This research was supported in part by the European Commission under the fifth framework (Grant Cliniporator QLK3-1999-00484), Slovenian Research Agency, CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), Institute Gustave-Roussy and Ad-Futura. This research was conducted in the scope of LEA EBAM. The authors thank Dr. David Cukjati and Dr. Danute Batiuskaite for the results of in vivo experiments performed in the lab of L. M. M. (Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France) as well as Derek Snyder for help in proofreading and editing the text.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Selma Čorović
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lluis M. Mir
    • 2
    • 3
  • Damijan Miklavčič
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.UMR 8203 CNRS, Laboratoire de Vectorologie et Thérapeutiques AnticancéreusesInstitute Gustave-RoussyVillejuif CedexFrance
  3. 3.UMR 8203University of Paris-Sud XIParisFrance

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