Influence of Cholesterol and β-Sitosterol on the Structure of EYPC Bilayers
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The influence of cholesterol and β-sitosterol on egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) bilayers is compared. Different interactions of these sterols with EYPC bilayers were observed using X-ray diffraction. Cholesterol was miscible with EYPC in the studied concentration range (0–50 mol%), but crystallization of β-sitosterol in EYPC bilayers was observed at X ≥ 41 mol% as detected by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the repeat distance (d) of the lamellar phase was similar upon addition of the two sterols up to mole fraction 17%, while for X ≥ 17 mol% it became higher in the presence of β-sitosterol compared to cholesterol. SANS data on suspensions of unilamellar vesicles showed that both cholesterol and β-sitosterol similarly increase the EYPC bilayer thickness. Cholesterol in amounts above 33 mol% decreased the interlamellar water layer thickness, probably due to “stiffening” of the bilayer. This effect was not manifested by β-sitosterol, in particular due to the lower solubility of β-sitosterol in EYPC bilayers. Applying the formalism of partial molecular areas, it is shown that the condensing effect of both sterols on the EYPC area at the lipid–water interface is small, if any. The parameters of ESR spectra of spin labels localized in different regions of the EYPC bilayer did not reveal any differences between the effects of cholesterol and β-sitosterol in the range of full miscibility.
KeywordsCholesterol β-Sitosterol Plant sterol Egg yolk phosphatidylcholine Repeat distance Bilayer thickness Undulation SANS X-ray diffraction ESR
This work was supported by the European Commission through the Access Activities of the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Neutron Scattering and Muon Spectroscopy (NMI3); the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme through the Key Action: Strengthening the European Research Area, Research Infrastructures, contract RII3-CT-2003-505925; the Dubna JINR 07-04-1069-09/2011 project; and the VEGA 1/0295/08 and 1/0159/11 (P. B.) and 1/0292/09 (D. U.) grants. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 226716 (HASYLAB project I-20080187 EC, to D. U.).
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