Gap Junction Coupling and Apoptosis in GFSHR-17 Granulosa Cells
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Recently, we found that intracellular washout of cGMP induces gap junction uncoupling and proposed a link between gap junction uncoupling and stimulation of apoptotic reactions in GFSHR-17 granulosa cells. In the present report we show that an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, ODQ, reduces gap junction coupling and promotes apoptotic reactions such as chromatin condensation and DNA strand breaks. To analyze whether gap junction uncoupling and induction of apoptotic reactions are related, the cells were treated with heptanol and 18β-GA, two known gap junction uncouplers. Gap junction coupling of GFSHR-17 cells could be restored if the incubation time with the gap junction uncouplers was less than 10 min. A prolonged incubation time irreversibly suppressed gap junction coupling and caused chromatin condensation as well as DNA degradation. The promotion of apoptotic reactions by heptanol or 18β-GA was not observed in cells with low gap junction coupling like HeLa cells, indicating that the observed genotoxic reactions are not caused by unspecific effects of gap junction uncouplers. Additionally, it was observed that heptanol or 18β-GA did not induce a sustained rise of [Ca2+]i. The effects of gap junction uncouplers could not be suppressed by the presence of 8-Br-cGMP. It is discussed that irreversible gap junction uncoupling can be mediated by cGMP-dependent as well as cGMP-independent pathways and in turn could lead to stimulation of apoptotic reactions in granulosa cells.
KeywordsGranulosa cells cGMP Gap junction Apoptosis Chromatin condensation DNA strand breaks
The authors thank Dr. B. Sommersberg, Dr. A. Mayerhofer (Anatomisches Institut, Technische Universität München, Germany) and Dr. A. Amsterdam (Weizman Institute Rehovot, Israel) for providing the GFSHR-17 cell line. The work was partly supported by a grant from the Fritz Thyssen-Stiftung.
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