Numerical investigation on effects of fuel tube diameter and co-flow velocity in a methane/air non-premixed flame
In this paper, the effects of variations in the fuel tube diameter and co-flow velocity in the combustion chamber on the non-premixed laminar flame are investigated. Methane gas, as a fuel, and the dry air, as an oxidizer. The size of the combustion chamber is constant and, by changing the fuel tube diameter and co-flow velocity, changes in the numerical values of temperature, velocity, density, and concentration of the species of reactants and products in the combustion chamber are evaluated. A finite volume method (FVM) with staggered grids is used for numerical solution. Equations of continuity, momentum, energy, ideal gas state and kinetic equations with thermodynamic and thermochemical information of chemical species are solved using numerical method of SIMPLE. The convective terms are discretized using Power Law scheme (PLS).The calculations are carried out using Dryer and Glassman’s three-stage chemical kinetics. Variable under relaxation factor dependent on temperature has been used to handle the solving chemical kinetic equations. Initially, the results of calculations are compared with the experimental and numerical results of other researchers, which show an acceptable agreement.. The results show that increasing the diameter ratio reduces the length of the flame. With the large ratio of the diameters, location of the combustion’s maximum temperature is at the chamber entrance and for the small diameter ratios, its location moves to nearly outlet of the chamber. In addition, the reduction of the ratio of the diameters increases the flame lift-off. Also the results show that the optimal of diameters ratio is 0.6 in order to prevent the lift-off flame and return the flame to inlet opening of combustion chamber. Also increasing the fuel tube diameter, increases the amount of oxygen due to the return flow formation and decreases the volumes of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the centerline of the combustion chamber. The flame length attains the maximum possible value with respect to diameter ratio of 0.6 at inlet air velocity of 0.3 m/s. In addition, it is shown that increasing the air velocity increases the total flame lift-off and flame length until the air velocity reaches the value of around 0.3 m/s and by increasing the air velocity more than 0.3 m/s, the total flame lift-off and flame length decreases.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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