Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 12, pp 3721–3732 | Cite as

Impact of different geometric shapes on drying kinetics and textural characteristics of apples at temperatures above 100 °C

  • Nasim Kian-Pour
  • Sukru KaratasEmail author
Original Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the impact of samples size and shapes on drying kinetics, transport phenomena and textural characteristics of apples during drying. Three different geometric plate shape samples including squares, circles, and triangles, at temperatures of 110 °C, 115 °C and 120 °C, respectively, were dried at a constant air velocity of 1.75 m/s, and a nonlinear regression analysis was applied to fit the results to six dehydration models. The statistical analysis indicated that the Midilli & Kucuk model was the ideal model. Fick’s second law of diffusion was applied for computation of effective diffusivities, which varied from 1.93 × 10−9 to 2.85 × 10−9 m2/s, while the activation energy varied from 20.41 to 36.51 kJ/kg.mol. Additionally, the drag forces, heat and mass transfer coefficients varied from 4.202 to 5.005 N, 60.312 to 71.763 (W/m2 K) and 0.0497 to 0.0594 (m/s), respectively. The results reveal that triangular shapes could have the potential to improve the air drying of apples at an industrial extent.

Nomenclature

a, b, c, k, n

Drying parameters

A

Total surface area (m2)

CA

Circle shape sample

Cf

Friction drag coefficient (dimensionless)

Cp

Specific heat (J/kg K)

Cpa

Specific heat of apple (J/kg K)

D0

Arrhenius factor (m2/s)

DAB

Mass diffusivity of air-water vapour mixture (m2/s)

Deff

Effective moisture diffusivity (m2/s)

DR

Drying rate (kg water/kg dry solid. min)

Ea

Activation energy (kJ/mol)

FD

Drag force (N)

FD,friction

Friction drag force (N)

hheat

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

hmass

Convective mass transfer coefficient (m/s)

K

Slope

ka

Thermal conductivity of apple (W/m K)

kair

Air thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L

Characteristic length of the sample (m)

Le

Lewis number (dimensionless)

M0

Initial moisture content (kg water/kg dry solid)

Me

Equilibrium moisture content (kg water/kg dry solid)

MR

Moisture ratio (dimensionless)

\( \overline{\boldsymbol{M}\ } \)

Average moisture content (kg water/kg dry solid)

Mt

Moisture content at time t (kg water/kg dry solid)

Mt + ∆t

Moisture content at time t + ∆t (kg water/kg dry solid)

MRpred,i

Predicted moisture ratio (dimensionless)

MRexp,i

Experimental moisture ratio (dimensionless)

Mwb

Moisture content-wet base (%)

N

Number of observation

Nu

Nusselt number (dimensionless)

n

Positive integer

Pr

Prandtl number (dimensionless)

R

Universal gas constant (kJ/kmol. K)

R2

Coefficient of determination

ReL

Reynolds number (dimensionless)

RMSE

Root mean square error

SA

Square shape sample

Sc

Schmidt number (dimensionless)

Sh

Sherwood number (dimensionless)

T

Absolute temperature (K)

TA

Triangle shape sample

t

Drying time (min)

∆t

Interval time between two weight measurements (min)

V

Air free-stream velocity (m/s)

x1

Half thickness of slab (m)

x2

Reduced chi-square

z

Number of constant

α

Thermal diffusivity (m2/s)

v

Kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

μ

Fluid viscosity (kg/m.s)

ρ

Fluid density (kg/m3)

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Pasban A, Sadrnia H, Mohebbi M, Shahidi SA (2017) Spectral method for simulating 3D heat and mass transfer during drying of apple slices. J Food Eng 212:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chayjan RA, Dibagar N, Alaei B (2017) Drying characteristics of zucchini slices under periodic infrared-microwave vacuum conditions. Heat Mass Transf 53:3473–3485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Castro AM, Mayorga EY, Moreno FL (2018) Mathematical modelling of convective drying of fruits: A review. J Food Eng 223:152–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ertekin C, Firat MZ (2017) A comprehensive review of thin-layer drying models used in agricultural products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57(4):701–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rahman MM, Joardder MUH, Khan MIH, Pham N, Karim M (2018) Multi-scale model of food drying: Current status and challenges. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 58(5):858–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mujumdar AS (2006) Handbook of industrial drying, 3rd edn. Taylor and Francis Group, LLCGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Onwude D, Hashim N, Janius RB, Nawi NM, Abdan K (2016) Modeling the Thin-Layer drying of fruits and vegetables: A review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15:599–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lewicki PP, Jakubczyk E (2004) Effect of hot air temperature on mechanical properties of dried apples. J Food Eng 64:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sacilik K, Elicin AK (2006) The thin layer drying characteristics of organic apple slices. J Food Eng 73:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vega-Galvez A, Miranda M, Bilbao-Saniz C, Uribe E, Lemus-Mondaca R (2008) Emperical modeling of drying process for apple (CV. Granny Smith) slices at different air temperatures. J Food Process Preserv 32:972–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Contreras C, Martin-Esparza ME, Chiralt A, Martinez-Navarrete N (2008) Influence of microwave application on convective drying: Effects on drying kinetics, and optical and mechanical properties of apple and strawberry. J Food Eng 88:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Golestani R, Raisi A, Aroujalian A (2013) Mathematical modeling on air drying of apples considering shrinkage and variable diffusion coefficient. Dry Technol 31(1):40–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zlatanovic I, Komatina M, Antonijevic D (2013) Low-temperature convective drying of apple cubes. Appl Therm Eng 53:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tonin IP, Ferrari CC, Silva MGD, Oliveira KLD, Berto MI, Silva VMD, Germer SPM (2018) Performance of different process additives on the properties of mango powder obtained by drum drying. Dry Technol 36:355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Junlakan W, Tirawanichakul S, Yamsaengsung R (2017) Effect of vacuum drying on structural changes of bananas, pineapples, and apples. J Food Process Preserv:e13264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marco ID, Iannone R, Miranda S, Riemma S (2015) Life Cycle Assessment of Apple Powders Produced by a Drum Drying Process. Chem Eng Trans 43:193–198Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zareifard MR, Niakousari M, Shokrollahi Z, Javadian S (2012) A Feasibility Study on the Drying of Lime Juice: The Relationship between the Key Operating Parameters of a Small Laboratory Spray Dryer and Product Quality. Food Bioprocess Technol 5:1896–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yousefi S, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi SM (2011) Effect of carrier type and spray drying on the physicochemical properties of powdered and reconstituted pomegranate juice (Punica Granatum L.). J Food Sci Technol 48:677–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agudelo C, Igual M, Camacho MM, Martìnez-Navarrete N (2016) Effect of process technology on the nutritional, functional, and physical quality of grapefruit powder. Food Sci Technol Int 23:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henríquez M, Almonacid S, Lutz M, Simpson R, Valdenegro M (2013) Comparison of three drying processes to obtain an apple peel food ingredient. CyTA - Journal of Food 11:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee C-G, Ahmed M, Jiang G-H, Eun J-B (2017) Color, bioactive compounds and morphological characteristics of encapsulated Asian pear juice powder during spray drying. J Food Sci Technol 54:2717–2727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beigi M (2016) Hot air drying of apple slices: dehydration characteristics and quality assessment. Heat Mass Transf 52:1435–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dehghannya J, Bozorghi S, Heshmati MK (2018) Low temperature hot air drying of potato cubes subjected to osmotic dehydration and intermittent microwave: drying kinetics, energy consumption and product quality indexes. Heat Mass Transf 54:929–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hosseinpour S, Rafiee S, Aghbashlo M, Mohtasebi SS (2015) Computer vision system (CVS) for in-line monitoring of visual texture kinetics during shrimp (Penaeus Spp.) drying. Dry Technol 33:238–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nowak D, Lewicki PP (2005) Quality of infrared dried apple slices. Dry Technol 23:831–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zielinska M, Michalska A (2016) Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture. Food Chem 212:671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yi J, Lyu J, Bi J-F, Zhou L-Y, Zhou M (2017) Hot air drying and freeze drying pre-treatments coupled to explosion puffing drying in terms of quality attributes of mango,pitaya, and papaya fruit chips. Food Processing and Preservation:e13300Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990) Official Method of Analysis, 19th edn. AOAC International, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karatas S (1997) Determination of moisture diffusivity of lentil seed during drying. Dry Technol 15(1):183–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Darıcı S, Şen S (2015) Experimental investigation of convective drying kinetics of kiwi under different conditions. Heat Mass Transf 51:1167–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paula AM, Conti-Silva AC (2014) Texture profile and correlation between sensory and instrumental analyses on extruded snacks. J Food Eng 121:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Altay K, Hayaloglu AA, Dirim SN (2019) Determination of the drying kinetics and energy efficiency of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves using different drying methods. Heat Mass TransfGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ndukwu MC, Bennamoun L, Anozie O (2018) Evolution of thermo-physical properties of Akuama (picralima nitida) seed and antioxidants retention capacity during hot air drying. Heat Mass Transf 54:3533–3546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tüfekçi S, Özkal SG (2017) Enhancement of drying and rehydration characteristics of okra by ultrasound pre-treatment application. Heat Mass Transf 53:2279–2286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Coşkun S, Doymaz I, Tunçkal C, Erdog˘an S (2017) Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer. Heat Mass Transf 53:1863–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Doymaz İ (2009) An experimental study on drying of green apples. Dry Technol 27(3):478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kucuk H, Midilli A, Kilic A, Dincer I (2014) A Review on Thin-Layer Drying-Curve Equations. Dry Technol 32(7):757–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Benmakhlouf N, Azzouz S, Monzó-Cabrera J, Khdhira H, ELCafsi A (2017) Controlling mechanisms of moisture diffusion in convective drying of leather. Heat Mass Transf 53:1237–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crank J (1975) The mathematics of diffusion, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, LondonzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zarein M, Samadi SH, Ghobadian B (2015) Investigation of Microwave Dryer Effect on Energy Efficiency during Drying of Apple Slices. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 14:41–47Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Çengel YA, Cimbala JM (2006) Fluid mechanics: Fundamentals and applications, 1st edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Geankoplis CJ (1993) Transport processes and unit operations, 3rd edn. Prentice-Hall. Inc, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Çengel YA (2007) Heat & Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Singh RP, Heldman DR (2009) Introduction to Food Engineering, 4th edn. Elsevier Inc, San Diego, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Agrawal SG, Methekar RN (2017) Mathematical model for heat and mass transfer during convective drying of pumpkin. Food Bioprod Process 101:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holman JP (2011) Experimental Methods for Engineers, 8th edn. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Esfahani JA, Majdi H, Barati E (2014) Analytical two-dimensional analysis of the transport phenomena occurring during convective drying: Apple slices. J Food Eng 123:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Antal T, Kerekes B, Sikolya L, Tarek M (2015) Quality and drying characteristics of apple cubes subjected to combined drying (FD pre-drying and HAD finish-drying). J Food Process Preserv 39:994–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Srikiatden J, Roberts J (2005) Moisture loss kinetics of apple during convective hot air and isothermal drying. Int J Food Prop 8(3):493–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Toujani M, Hassini L, Azzouz S, Belghith A (2013) Experimental study and mathematical modeling of Silverside fish convective drying. J Food Process Preserv 37:930–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Akpinar E k (2006) Determination of suitable thin layer drying curve model for some vegetables and fruits. J Food Eng 73:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dadali G, Demirhan E, Özbek B (2007) Microwave heat treatment of spinach: Drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity. Dry Technol 25(10):1703–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hii C, Law C, Cloke M (2008) Modlling of thin-layer drying kinetics of cocoa bean during artificial and natural drying. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 3(1):1–10Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Erbay Z, Icier F (2010) A review of thin layer drying of foods: Theory, modeling, and experimental results. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50(5):441–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gonzalez-Fesler M, Salvatori D, Gomez P, Alzamora S (2008) Convective air drying of apples as affected by blanching and calcium impregnation. J Food Eng 87:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Troncoso E, Pedreschi F (2007) Modeling of textural changes during drying of potato slices. J Food Eng 82:577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kholmanskiy A, Tilov A, Sorokina E (2013) Drying kinetics of plant products: Dependence on chemical composition. J Food Eng 117:378–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ahmad-Qasem M, Barrajon-Catalan E, Micol V, Cárcel J, Garcia-Perez JV (2013) Influence of air temperature on drying kinetics and antioxidant potential. J Food Eng 119:516–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Valle JG, Pallares JS (2018) Analytical solution for the coupled heat and mass transfer formulation of one-dimensional drying kinetics. J Food Eng 230:99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lohani UC, Muthukumarappan K (2016) Effect of sequential treatments of fermentation andultrasonication followed by extrusion on bioactive content ofapple pomace and textural, functional properties of its extrudates. Int J Food Sci Technol 51:1811–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Antal T, Kerekes B, Sikolya L (2013) Physical properties of freeze dried vegetables by different thermal and chemical pre-treatments. Synergy and Technical Development, GödöllıGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food EngineeringIstanbul Aydin UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations