Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 11, pp 3289–3299 | Cite as

Thermal, physical and chemical properties of lavender leaves under near infrared vacuum, multi-stage semi-industrial continuous and open sun drying

  • Hamed Homayounfar
  • Reza Amiri ChayjanEmail author
  • Hassan Sarikhani
  • Ramazan Kalvandi


In this study, three different apparatuses of near infrared-vacuum (40 to 60 °C and 20 to 60 kPa), multi-stage semi-industrial continues dryers (40–60 °C) and open sun condition were implemented in lavender leaves drying. Effective moisture diffusivity, antioxidant capacity, total phenol content and color index were determined in all of the experiments. Effective moisture diffusivity variations of lavender leaves in near infrared-vacuum dryer were significant. Effective moisture diffusivity variations for lavender leaves drying in multi-stage semi-industrial continuous, were significant only for changes of air temperature of first stage and the highest value of effective moisture diffusivity in multi-stage semi-industrial continuous dryer was achieved at air temperature order of 60, 40 and 60 °C for first, second and third drying stages, respectively. Changes of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in near infrared-vacuum dryer were insignificant, but the effect of air temperature on changes of antioxidant capacity and total phenol content under multi-stage semi-industrial continuous drying was significant. Green color change was significant for both of near infrared-vacuum and multi-stage semi-industrial continues dryers and product color changed to yellow. In open sun condition, total phenol content and antioxidant declined, strongly, and color of lavender leaves changed to yellow-red. With respect to the quality indices, the near infrared-vacuum dryer can be considered as the best apparatus for lavender leaves processing.



Financial support of this research was received from Bu-Ali Sina University, which is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks due to Ms. Behnaz Jahani Badakhshan for assistance with the experiments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamed Homayounfar
    • 1
  • Reza Amiri Chayjan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hassan Sarikhani
    • 2
  • Ramazan Kalvandi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  3. 3.Department of Natural ResourcesResearch and Education Center for Agricultural and Natural ResourcesHamedanIran

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