Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 12, pp 3473–3491 | Cite as

Solar air heater duct roughened with wavy delta winglets: correlations development and parametric optimization

  • Rajesh MaithaniEmail author
  • Sunil Chamoli
  • Anil Kumar
  • Ashutosh Gupta


In this work, an experimental study has been carried out to analyse the effect of wavy delta winglets on Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) in solar air passage for a specified range of system and operating parameters. The geometrical parameters considered are the number of waves (ϕ)=3 to 7, the relative longitudinal pitch (P/H)=3 to 6, and the angle of attack (α) = 30° to 75°. A fixed values of relative winglet chord length (c/H = 1.4) and relative blockage height (b/H = 0.5) are considered in the present study. The experimental data are generated for Nusselt number and friction factor for different combinations of geometrical and flow parameters and correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are also developed. Further, the developed correlations are deployed for the parametric optimization based on effective efficiency.



Convective heat-transfer coefficient (W/m2K)


Friction factor


Height of duct (m)


Relative longitudinal pitch


Hydraulic diameter of duct (m)


Thermal conductivity of air (W/m°K)


Length of test section


Nusselt number


Pitch of the winglets (m)


Prandtl number


Pressure drop across test section, (N/m2)


Temperature rise parameter (K-m2/W)


Reynolds number


Velocity of air in test section

Greek symbols


Angle of attack


Number of waves


Density of air at bulk mean air temperature (kg/m3)


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Maithani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sunil Chamoli
    • 2
  • Anil Kumar
    • 3
  • Ashutosh Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDIT UniversityDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringGBPIETPauriIndia
  3. 3.School of Civil and Mechanical EngineeringShoolini UniverstiySolanIndia

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