Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 11, pp 3065–3075 | Cite as

Influences of copper columns on thermal hydraulic performance of the vapor chamber

  • Li Cong
  • Jian Qifei


A simplified and efficient hydrothermal model was adapted and validated with both the experiment and literature data to further investigate the mechanism and influence of different columns on thermal performance of the vapor chamber (VC). The experiment was conducted by testing a T-shaped VC under different heat loads, and the maximum error with the numerical model was about 2 K. Factors including column dimension, column number and column structures were analyzed. Results show that sintered wick ring layer could provide auxiliary liquid circulation paths, reduce the pressure drop in the fluid circulation, and provide additional heat conductive passages. The column dimension shows enhancement on heat transfer capability of VC as the area ratio in the range of 0~0.5, with a maximum decrease by about 6.45% of the thermal resistance compared with the void VC. By comparing with other column structures, copper columns with sintered wick rings were found to the optimal type for enhancing the thermal performance of VC.



Permeability (m−2)


Radius (m)

\( \overrightarrow{V} \)

Velocity vector (m/s)


Pressure (pa)


Pressure source term


Temperature (K)


Column diameter (m)


Heat transfer rate (W)


Thermal conductivity (W/m K)


Area (m2)


Side length of a control volume (m)


Latent heat of vaporization (kJ/kg)


Heat flux (W/m2)


Thermal resistance (K/W)


Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

\( \overline{T} \)

Average temperature (K)



Density (kg/m3)


Dynamic viscosity (pa s)


Solid-liquid contact angle


Wick porosity


Liquid-vapor surface tension (N/m), 0.072 N/m



Liquid region


Evaporation section


Condensation section


Control volume index


Vapor region

normal, l

Normal direction in liquid interface

normal, v

Normal direction in vapor interface



Solid wall


Wick structure




Copper powder



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21776095), the Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (No. 201804020048). Guangdong key laboratory of Clean energy technology (2008A060301002), and the Startup Foundation for Docotors of Jiangxi University of Science and Technology (3401223407).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li Cong
    • 1
  • Jian Qifei
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Mechatronics EngineeringJiangxi University of Science and TechnologyGanzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.GuangzhouChina

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