Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 12, pp 3613–3631 | Cite as

Citrullus colocynthis - an experimental investigation with enzymatic lipase based methyl esterified biodiesel

  • Arularasu SivalingamEmail author
  • Annamalai Kandhasamy
  • Appuraja Senthil Kumar
  • Elumalai Perumal Venkatesan
  • Lingesan Subramani
  • Krishnamoorthy Ramalingam
  • J. Paul James Thadhani
  • Harish Venu


The intensification of energy claim and inadequate fossil fuel wealth instruct the way to renewable-based energy development that is to say vegetable oils, seed oils, plants oil and animal fats and etc. The experimental study investigated the significance of biodiesel replaced for diesel. The biodiesel is obtained by two intrinsic methods from Citrullus colocynthis, one with methyl ester and other with enzymatic lipase-based methyl ester transesterification process. The process involves Fe3O4+ thermomyces lanuginosus lipase as a catalyst for transesterification. The fuel extruded from these methods is tested with a single cylinder four stroke DI diesel engine to investigate the performance emission and combustion parameters. Initially, Novel immobilization-based lipase transesterification method was involved in the extrusion of oil from Citrullus colocynthis seed and a yield of 90% with a time frame of 0 to 73 h, the extrusion was also escalated with conventional transesterification. The investigation shows that the fuel undergoes good combustion and the performance parameters were improved which in turns reflects the reduction of emission. The brake thermal efficiency of lipase immobilized biodiesel (Blend-L) is 29.86% at full load condition which is fairly less than diesel (31.33%) followed by a value of 28.93% at full load condition for conventional transesterified biodiesel. When the fuels are combusted the heat release rate and peak pressure is quite less than diesel fuel for Blend-L. The emission parameters such as PM and NOx are comparatively high than diesel and the remaining emission showed significantly reduced values.



Direct injection


Lipase catalyst trans esterified blend


Conventional trans esterified blend


Particulate matter


Oxides of nitrogen


Internal combustion


Free fatty acid


Compression ignition


Potassium hydroxide


Sulfuric acid


Carbon monoxide




Brake specific fuel consumption


Brake Thermal Efficiency


20% biodiesel +80% diesel


40% biodiesel +60% diesel


American society for testing and materials


European committee for standardization


Exhaust gas temperature


Specific fuel consumption


Unburned hydrocarbon










Sulfur dioxide


Aluminium oxide


Copper (II) oxide


Iron (III) oxide


Fatty acid methyl ester


Ignition Delay


Citrullus colocynthis methyl ester


Lipase-based methyl ester



  1. 1.
    Shameer PM, Ramesh K (2018) Assessment on the consequences of injection timing and injection pressure on combustion characteristics of sustainable biodiesel fuelled engine. Renew Sust Energ Rev 81(3):45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Medeiros DL, Sales EA, Kiperstok A (2015) Energy production from microalgae biomass: Carbon footprint and energy balance. J Clean Prod 96:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Subramani and H. Venu, “Evaluation of methyl ester derived from novel Chlorella emersonii as an alternative feedstock for DI diesel engine & its combustion , performance and tailpipe emissions,” 2018Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fukuda H, Kondo A, Noda H (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. J Biosci Bioeng 92(5):405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang WM et al (2013) Emulsion fuel with novel nano-organic additives for diesel engine application. Fuel 104(x):726–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shan R, Shi J, Yan B, Chen G, Yao J, Liu C (2016) Transesterification of palm oil to fatty acids methyl ester using K2CO3/palygorskite catalyst. Energy Convers Manag 116:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rahmani Vahid B, Haghighi M (2017) Biodiesel production from sunflower oil over MgO/MgAl2O4nanocatalyst: Effect of fuel type on catalyst nanostructure and performance. Energy Convers Manag 134:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ferrero GO, Almeida MF, Alvim-Ferraz MCM, Dias JM (2015) Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil. Energy Convers Manag 89:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mardhiah HH, Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Lim S, Lee HV (2017) A review on latest developments and future prospects of heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production from non-edible oils. Renew Sust Energ Rev 67:1225–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dharma S et al (2016) Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology. Energy Convers Manag 115:178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mondal M et al (2016) Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. BTA 9031 and Chlamydomonas sp. BTA 9032 isolated from coal field using various carbon sources for biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 124:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen G, Liu J, Yao J, Qi Y, Yan B (2017) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in a magnetically fluidized bed reactor using whole-cell biocatalysts. Energy Convers Manag 138:556–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Elsheikh YA, Akhtar FH (2014) Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Oil: Sulfonic-Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Esterification of a Two-Step Process. 2014Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Betiku E, Omilakin OR, Ajala SO, Okeleye AA, Taiwo AE, Solomon BO (2014) Mathematical modeling and process parameters optimization studies by artificial neural network and response surface methodology: A case of non-edible neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil biodiesel synthesis. Energy 72:266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li X et al (2012) Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil using immobilized lipase. Fuel 92(1):89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tjong SC, Mai YW (Eds.) (2010) Physical properties and applications of polymer nanocomposites. Elsevier. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arumugam A, Thulasidharan D, Jegadeesan GB (2018) Process optimization of biodiesel production from Hevea brasiliensis oil using lipase immobilized on spherical silica aerogel. Renew Energy 116:755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bose S, Armstrong DW, Petrich JW (2010) Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose in ionic liquids: a green approach toward the production of biofuels. J Phys Chem B 114(24):8221–8227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balasubramaniam B, Sudalaiyadum A, Jayaraman J, Mani J, Ramanujam P (2012) Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil). Waste Manag 32(8):1539–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Silitonga AS, Masjuki HH, Ong HC, Yusaf T, Kusumo F, Mahlia TMI (2016) Synthesis and optimization of Hevea brasiliensis and Ricinus communis as feedstock for biodiesel production: A comparative study. Ind Crop Prod 85:274–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cao L, Zhang S (2015) Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil. Appl Energy 146:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rajagopalachar S, Joshi SS, Reddy RP (2017) Biodiesel synthesis from Garcinia gummi-gutta ( L . Robson ) seed oil : fuel feasibility evaluation of a novel feedstock by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification. Biofuels:1–8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Subramani L et al. “and Evaluation Production of Garcinia gummi-gutta Methyl Ester ( GGME ) as a Potential Alternative Feedstock for Existing Unmodified DI Diesel Engine :”Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    I. Introduction. GARCINIA CAMBOGIA. vol. IVGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thiruvengadaravi KV, Nandagopal J, Baskaralingam P, Sathya Selva Bala V, Sivanesan S (2012) Acid-catalyzed esterification of karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil with high free fatty acids for biodiesel production. Fuel 98:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Subramani L, Parthasarathy M, Balasubramanian D, Ramalingam K (2018) Novel Garcinia gummi-gutta methyl ester (GGME) as a potential alternative feedstock for existing unmodified DI diesel engine. Renew EnergyGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Balasubramanian D, Rajan S, Arumugam S (2017) A numerical study on the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance, combustion, and emission behavior on a single cylinder diesel engineGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohamed Shameer P, Ramesh K, Sakthivel R, Purnachandran R (2017) Effects of fuel injection parameters on emission characteristics of diesel engines operating on various biodiesel: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 67(3):1267–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prakash Maran J, Priya B (2015) Modeling of ultrasound assisted intensification of biodiesel production from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil using response surface methodology and artificial neural network. Fuel 143:262–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Menon K, Sood N, Rao NK (2016) Study of morpho-agronomic diversity and oil content in desert gourd (Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.). 10(7):1000–1006Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schafferman D, Beharav A, Shabelsky E, Yaniv Z (1998) Evaluation of citrullus colocynthis, a desert plant native in Israel, as a potential source of edible oil. J Arid Environ 40(4):431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Supriyono H, Sulistyo MFA, Dias JM (2015) Influence of synthetic antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel produced from acid raw Jatropha curcas oil. Fuel Process Technol 132:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Elsheikh YA (2013) Preparation of Citrullus colocynthis biodiesel via dual-step catalyzed process using functionalized imidazolium and pyrazolium ionic liquids for esterification step. Ind Crop Prod 49:822–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ahmed S, Hassan MH, Kalam MA, Ashrafur Rahman SM, Abedin MJ, Shahir A (2014) An experimental investigation of biodiesel production, characterization, engine performance, emission and noise of Brassica juncea methyl ester and its blends. J Clean Prod 79:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vijayaraj K, Sathiyagnanam AP (2016) Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends. Alexandria Eng J 55(1):215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Deep A, Sandhu SS, Chander S (2017) Experimental investigations on the influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on single cylinder C.I. engine fueled with 20% blend of castor biodiesel in diesel. Fuel 210:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Talukder MMR, Das P, Fang TS, Wu JC (2011) Enhanced enzymatic transesterification of palm oil to biodiesel. Biochem Eng J 55(2):119–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kumar AS, Sivalingam A, Subramani L, Kandhasamy A, Venkatesan EP (2018) Experimental Investigation on Lemongrass Oil Water Emulsion in Low Heat Rejection Direct Ignition Diesel Engine. J Test Eval 47(1)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ciftci ON, Temelli F (2013) Enzymatic conversion of corn oil into biodiesel in a batch supercritical carbon dioxide reactor and kinetic modeling. J Supercrit Fluids 75:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lopresto CG et al (2015) Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 121:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karthikeyan S, Elango A, Prathima A (2014) Performance and emission study on zinc oxide nano particles addition with pomolion stearin wax biodiesel of CI engine. J Sci Ind Res (India) 73(3):187–190Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miao C, Yang L, Wang Z, Luo W, Li H (2018) Lipase immobilization on amino-silane modi fi ed superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Fuel 224:774–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yahya NY, Ngadi N, Jusoh M, Halim NAA (2016) Characterization and parametric study of mesoporous calcium titanate catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Energy Convers Manag 129:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ciftci ON et al (2016) Optimization of lipase production from organic solid waste by anaerobic digestion and its application in biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 102(1):2130–2134MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sarve A, Sonawane SS, Varma MN (2015) Ultrasound assisted biodiesel production from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using barium hydroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst: Comparative assessment of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Ultrason Sonochem 26:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Arbi I, Sbihi H, Ping C, Al-resayes SI (2013) Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil : Comparison with Helianthus annuus ( sunflower ) seed oil. Food Chem 136(2):348–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kenthorai Raman J, Foo Wang Ting V, Pogaku R (2011) Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production using alkali, soluble and immobilized enzyme catalyst processes. Biomass Bioenergy 35(10):4221–4229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Parawira W (2009) Biotechnological production of biodiesel fuel using biocatalysed transesterification: A review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 29(2):82–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Campanelli P, Banchero M, Manna L (2010) Synthesis of biodiesel from edible , non-edible and waste cooking oils via supercritical methyl acetate transesterification. Fuel 89(12):3675–3682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Minami E, Saka S (2006) Kinetics of hydrolysis and methyl esterification for biodiesel production in two-step supercritical methanol process. Fuel 85(17–18):2479–2483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shiu PJ, Gunawan S, Hsieh WH, Kasim NS, Ju YH (2010) Biodiesel production from rice bran by a two-step in-situ process. Bioresour Technol 101(3):984–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ghadge SV, Raheman H (2005) Biodiesel production from mahua (Madhuca indica) oil having high free fatty acids. Biomass Bioenergy 28(6):601–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Perumal V, Ilangkumaran M (2017) Experimental analysis of engine performance, combustion and emission using pongamia biodiesel as fuel in CI engine. Energy 129:228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kakati J, Gogoi TK (2016) Biodiesel production from Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb. Ex.) fruit seed oil: Its characterization and engine performance evaluation with 10% and 20% blends. Energy Convers Manag 121:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yusup S, Khan M (2010) Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics. Biomass Bioenergy 34(10):1523–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hassan SNAM, Ishak MAM, Ismail K, Ali SN, Yusop MF (2014) Comparison study of rubber seed shell and kernel (Hevea brasiliensis) as raw material for bio-oil production. Energy Procedia 52:610–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Robles-Medina A, González-Moreno PA, Esteban-Cerdán L, Molina-Grima E (2009) Biocatalysis: Towards ever greener biodiesel production. Biotechnol Adv 27(4):398–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Amini Z, Ilham Z, Ong HC, Mazaheri H, Chen WH (2017) State of the art and prospective of lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 141:339–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kumari A, Mahapatra P, Garlapati VK, Banerjee R (2009) Enzymatic transesterification of Jatropha oil. Biotechnol Biofuels 2Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dharma S et al (2017) Experimental study and prediction of the performance and exhaust emissions of mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel blends in diesel engine using artificial neural networks. J Clean Prod 164:618–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mohan B, Yang W, Chou SK (2013) Fuel injection strategies for performance improvement and emissions reduction in compression ignition engines - A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 28(x):664–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tupufia SC, Jeon YJ, Marquis C, Adesina AA, Rogers PL (2013) Enzymatic conversion of coconut oil for biodiesel production. Fuel Process Technol 106:721–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Madheshiya AK, Vedrtnam A (2018) Energy-exergy analysis of biodiesel fuels produced from waste cooking oil and mustard oil. Fuel 214:386–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gürü M, Karakaya U, Altıparmak D, Alıcılar A (2002) Improvement of Diesel fuel properties by using additives. Energy Convers Manag 43(8):1021–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gumus S, Ozcan H, Ozbey M, Topaloglu B (2016) Aluminum oxide and copper oxide nanodiesel fuel properties and usage in a compression ignition engine. Fuel 163:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ntui VO, Thirukkumaran G, Iioka S, Mii M (2009) Efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis in ‘Egusi’ melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.). Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 119(4):397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Karthikeyan S, Elango A, Prathima A (2014) An environmental effect of GSO methyl ester with ZnO additive fuelled marine engine. Indian J Geo-Marine Sci 43(4):564–570Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fayyazbakhsh A, Pirouzfar V (2016) Determining the optimum conditions for modified diesel fuel combustion considering its emission, properties and engine performance. Energy Convers Manag 113:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hosseini SH, Taghizadeh-Alisaraei A, Ghobadian B, Abbaszadeh-Mayvan A (2017) Performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with carbon nanotubes and diesel-biodiesel blends. Renew Energy 111:201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Patel PD, Lakdawala A, Chourasia S, Patel RN (2016) Bio fuels for compression ignition engine: A review on engine performance, emission and life cycle analysis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 65:24–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sakthivel G, Ilangkumaran M, Nagarajan G (2013) Predicting the engine performance using ethyl ester of fish oil with the aid of artificial neural network. Int J Ambient Energy 34(3):145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Al-Hamamre Z, Yamin J (2014) Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 79:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wang X, Liu X, Zhao C, Ding Y, Xu P (2011) Biodiesel production in packed-bed reactors using lipase-nanoparticle biocomposite. Bioresour Technol 102(10):6352–6355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ramalingam KM, Kandasamy A, Subramani L, Balasubramanian D, Paul James Thadhani J (2018) An assessment of combustion, performance characteristics and emission control strategy by adding anti-oxidant additive in emulsified fuel. Atmos Pollut ResGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bueso F, Moreno L, Cedeño M, Manzanarez K (2015) Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America. J Biol Eng 9(1):12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Venu H, Madhavan V (2016) Effect of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles in biodiesel-diesel-ethanol blends at various injection strategies : Performance , combustion and emission characteristics. Fuel 186:176–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Khiari K, Awad S, Loubar K, Tarabet L, Mahmoud R, Tazerout M (2016) Experimental investigation of pistacia lentiscus biodiesel as a fuel for direct injection diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 108:392–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kshirsagar CM, Anand R (2017) Artificial neural network applied forecast on a parametric study of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester-diesel engine out responses. Appl Energy 189:555–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Phoo ZWMM et al (2014) Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Ind Crop Prod 54:226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Agarwal AK, Srivastava DK, Dhar A, Maurya RK, Shukla PC, Singh AP (2013) Effect of fuel injection timing and pressure on combustion, emissions and performance characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine. Fuel 111:374–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Piemonte V, Di Paola L, Iaquaniello G, Prisciandaro M (2016) Biodiesel production from microalgae: Ionic liquid process simulation. J Clean Prod 111:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wamankar AK, Satapathy AK, Murugan S (2015) Experimental investigation of the effect of compression ratio, injection timing & pressure in a DI (direct injection) diesel engine running on carbon black-water-diesel emulsion. Energy 93:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Balasubramanian D, Sokkalingam Arumugam SR, Subramani L, Joshua Stephen Chellakumar IJL, Mani A (2017) A numerical study on the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance, combustion, and emission behavior on a single cylinder diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut ResGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Prasada Rao K, Victor Babu T, Anuradha G, Appa Rao BV (2017) IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN). Egypt J Pet 26(3):593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Verma P, Sharma MP, Dwivedi G (2016) Impact of alcohol on biodiesel production and properties. Renew Sust Energ Rev 56:319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wei M, Li S, Liu J, Guo G, Sun Z, Xiao H (2017) Effects of injection timing on combustion and emissions in a diesel engine fueled with 2,5-dimethylfuran-diesel blends. Fuel 192:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Taghavifar H, Taghavifar H, Mardani A, Mohebbi A (2014) Modeling the impact of in-cylinder combustion parameters of di engines on soot and NOx emissions at rated EGR levels using ANN approach. Energy Convers Manag 87:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hwang J, Bae C, Gupta T (2016) Application of waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel in a compression ignition engine. Fuel 176:20–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ganesan P, Rajakarunakaran S, Thirugnanasambandam M, Devaraj D (2015) Artificial neural network model to predict the diesel electric generator performance and exhaust emissions. Energy 83:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sajeevan AC, Sajith V (2016) Synthesis of stable cerium zirconium oxide nanoparticle - Diesel suspension and investigation of its effects on diesel properties and smoke. Fuel 183:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ramalingam K et al (2018) An assessment of combustion, performance characteristics and emission control strategy by adding anti-oxidant additive in emulsified fuel. Atmos Pollut Res:1–0Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shaafi T, Velraj R (2015) Influence of alumina nanoparticles, ethanol and isopropanol blend as additive with diesel-soybean biodiesel blend fuel: Combustion, engine performance and emissions. Renew Energy 80:655–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Agarwal AK, Dhar A, Gupta JG, Il Kim W, Lee CS, Park S (2014) Effect of fuel injection pressure and injection timing on spray characteristics and particulate size-number distribution in a biodiesel fuelled common rail direct injection diesel engine. Appl Energy 130:212–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lei T et al (2016) Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on optimized ethyl levulinate-biodiesel-diesel blends. Energy 95:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rezaei J, Shahbakhti M, Bahri B, Aziz AA (2015) Performance prediction of HCCI engines with oxygenated fuels using artificial neural networks. Appl Energy 138:460–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Can Ö, Öztürk E, Yücesu HS (2017) Combustion and exhaust emissions of canola biodiesel blends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. Renew Energy 109:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Alloune R, Balistrou M, Awad S, Loubar K, Tazerout M (2016) Performance, combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics investigation using Citrullus colocynthis L. biodiesel in DI diesel engine. J Energy Inst:1–11Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Park SH, Yoon SH, Lee CS (2013) HC and CO emissions reduction by early injection strategy in a bioethanol blended diesel-fueled engine with a narrow angle injection system. Appl Energy 107(x):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arularasu Sivalingam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Annamalai Kandhasamy
    • 1
  • Appuraja Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  • Elumalai Perumal Venkatesan
    • 1
  • Lingesan Subramani
    • 1
  • Krishnamoorthy Ramalingam
    • 1
  • J. Paul James Thadhani
    • 1
  • Harish Venu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Automobile EngineeringMadras Institute of Technology (MIT) Campus, Anna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSaveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations