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Evaluation of methyl ester derived from novel Chlorella emersonii as an alternative feedstock for DI diesel engine & its combustion, performance and tailpipe emissions

  • Lingesan Subramani
  • Harish Venu
Original
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Abstract

This work examines the feasibility of fueling methyl ester derived from green algae species, Chlorella emersonii in a compression ignition engine. This work also proposes Chlorella emersonii methyl ester (CEME) as a potential alternative energy source since the above species is available extensively in freshwater, marine and aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. CEME was blended with petroleum diesel fuel at various volume proportions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 100% and their properties were analyzed as per ASTM standards for its application as biofuel. The prepared test fuels were analyzed experimentally in a single cylinder diesel engine at a constant speed (1500 rev/min) for its performance, combustion and emission (regulated and unregulated) characteristics. Test results indicated that, the characteristics of 20% CEME+80% DIESEL fuel blend was in par with neat DIESEL fuel in terms of thermal efficiency, THC (total hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke emissions. However, CEME blends resulted in slightly higher levels of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. In terms of unregulated emissions, CEME blends in DIESEL showed lowered toluene and acetaldehyde emissions. However, acetone and formaldehyde emissions increased with higher percentage of CEME in DIESEL blend. At full load, the attained cylinder pressure and heat release rate of CEME were comparatively lower than DIESEL fuel. Overall, it can be concluded that B20 (20% CEME +80% DIESEL fuel) blend can be a positive variant feedstock and it can be utilized in an unmodified diesel engine with minimal tailpipe emissions.

Abbreviations

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

BSEC

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

BTE

Brake Thermal Efficiency

CEME

Chlorella Emersonii Methyl Ester

CEO

Chlorella Emersonii Oil

CHRR

Cumulative Heat Release Rate

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

EGT

Exhaust Gas Temperature

H2O

Water

HRR

Heat Release Rate

ID

Ignition delay

MR

Methanol-to-oil ratio

NOx

Oxides of Nitrogen

O2

Oxygen

THC

Total unburned Hydrocarbon

Symbols and nomenclatures

P

Instantaneous heat release rate, N/m2

V

Instantaneous cylinder volume, m3

ΔX

Uncertainty of measured variables

Xi

Number of readings

\( \overline{{\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{i}}} \)

Experimental readings

θ

Crank angle, degree

γ

Ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv), kJ/kgK

˙Qlw

Blow-by losses, J/oCA

\( \frac{d{Q}_{lw}}{d\theta} \)

Heat transfer to combustion chamber walls, J/oCA

\( \frac{{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{n}}}{\mathrm{d}\uptheta} \)

Net heat release rate, J/oCA

\( \frac{{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{g}}}{\mathrm{d}\uptheta} \)

Gross heat release rate, J/oCA

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), University Grand Commission (UGC), New Delhi and Government of India for its technical support for this investigation; thank Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University for its assistance in algal growth, culture and oil extraction. The authors also thank the Chemical engineering department, Anna University for fuel property characterization.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Automobile Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology CampusAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSaveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS)ChennaiIndia

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