Water distribution within wetted porous fabric exposed to a thermal radiation characterized by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

  • F. L. ZhuEmail author
  • M. Chen
  • Q. Q. Feng
Technical Note


In this short communication, we aimed to elucidate the changes of water distribution and status in wetted porous fabrics during simulating drying process by using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Fabrics were dried under different moisture regain conditions, i.e. 0%, 10%, 25 and 50% on a dry basis, respectively. Distributed exponential analysis of T2 transversal relaxation times revealed that the existence of three distinct water populations: bound water, capillary water and bulk free water at relaxation time ranges of 0~10 ms (T2b), 10~100 ms (T21) and ~1000 ms (T22). Water dynamics during simulating drying process show that the amount of immobile water increased slightly, whereas the amount of mobile water including capillary water and free water decreased. In addition, comparisons among the pore size distribution characteristics of porous fabrics from Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests interpret the phenomena that the population of T21 for Aramid IIIA fabric was lowest among all the tested fabrics.



The authors are grateful to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51576215).


  1. 1.
    Lawson LK et al (2004) Moisture effects in heat transfer through clothing systems of wildland firefighters. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 10(3):227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fu M et al (2013) Effects of moisture transfer and condensation in protective clothing based on thermal manikin experiment in fire environment. Procedia Engineering 62:760–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang TT et al (2015) Measuring moisture content in a porous insulation material using a hot wire. Build Environ 84:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee YM, Barker RL (1986) Effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of heat-resistant fabrics. Text Res J 4:315–331Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Udayraj TP, Das A et al (2016) Heat and mass transfer through thermal protective clothing-A review. Int J Therm Sci 106:32–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Toffanin R, Piras A, Szomolanyi P, Vittur F et al (2001) NMR microscopy as a non-destructive tool to probe water and oil in green coffee. Colloque Scientifique International sur le Café 19:271–277Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prokhorov DA, Mikoulinskaia GV, Molochkov NV et al (2015) High-resolution NMR structure of a Zn2+−containing form of the bacteriophage T5 L-ananyl-D-glutamate peptidase. RSC Adv 51:41040Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang X, Lin ZY, Zhang T et al (2017) Non-destructive measurement of water and fat contents, water dynamics during drying and adulteration detection of intact small yellow croaker by low field NMR. Food. Measurement 11:1550–1558MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mao HZ, Wang F, Mao FY et al (2016) Measurement of water content and moisture distribution in sludge by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Dry Technol 34(3):267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Foucat L (2014) Lahaye M. A subzero 1H NMR relaxation investigation of water dynamics in tomato pericarp. Food Chem 158:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mateus ML, Champion D, Liardon R et al (2007) Characterization of water mobility in dry and wetted roasted coffee using low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance. J Food Eng 81:572–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ojha KS, Kerry JP, Tiwari BK (2017) Investigation the influence of ultrasound pre-treatment on drying kinetics and moisture migration measurement in Lactobacillus sakei cultured and uncultured beef jerky. LWT-Food Science and Technology 81:42–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghi PY, Hill DJT, Whittaker AK (2002) 1H NMR study of the states of water in Equilibrium Poly(HEMA-co-THFMA) hydrogels. Macromolecules 3(5):991–997Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ji P, Jin J, Chen XL et al (2016) Characterization of water state and distribution in fibre materials by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. RSC Adv 6:11392–11500Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Le Botlan D, Quguerram L (1997) Spin-spin relaxation time determination of intermediate states in heterogeneous products from free induction decay NMR signals. Anal Chim Acta 349:339–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Washburn ED (1921) The dynamics of capillary flow. Physical Review Journals Archive 17:273Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yao YB, Liu DM (2012) Comparison of low-filed NMR and mercury intrusion porosimetry in characterizing pore size distributions of coals. Fuel 95:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Textile & Clothing Research InstituteZhongyuan University of TechnologyZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations