Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 433–444 | Cite as

On the convection heat transfer and pressure drop of copper oxide-heat transfer oil Nanofluid in inclined microfin pipe

  • Farhad HekmatipourEmail author
  • Milad Jalali
  • Farzad Hekmatipour
  • Mohammad A. Akhavan-Behabadi
  • B. Sajadi


In this pioneering work, mixed convection heat transfer and pressure drop of the CuO -HTO nanofluid flow in the inclined Microfin pipe is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar and temperature of the pipe wall is stable. The influence of nanoparticle and Richardson number on the mixed convection is studied as Richardson number is from 0.1 to 0.7. The results demonstrate that mixed convection heat transfer rate rise substantially with the promotion of nanoparticle mass concentration. Based on the empirical results, the four equations are recommended to be utilised for appraisal of nanofluid flow Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor in term of Richardson number and nanoparticle mass concentration with the peaked deflection of 16%. Moreover, the four equations put forward to appraise the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined pipe from 2,000,000 to 7,000,000. A new correlation is acquired to anticipate the flow Darcy friction factor in the inclined Microfin pipe. Accordingly, the maximum figure of merit is 1.61% which is achieved with 1.5% nanoparticles mass concentration and an inclined angle of 30° at the Richardson number of 0.7. These results show that using nanoparticles is more in favour of heat transfer enhancement rather than in the increase of the pressure drop.



Specific heat capacity (kJ/kg. K.)


Hydraulics Diameter (m)


Darcy friction factor \( \left({\pi}^2\rho {D}^5\Delta P\right)/2L{\dot{m}}^2 \)


Grashof number (β∆tL3ρ2g/μ2)


Graetz number (Re Pr D/L)


Convection coefficient (W/m2. K)


Thermal conductivity (W/m. K)

\( \dot{\mathrm{m}} \)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)


Number of fin


Nusselt number (\( \overline{h}/k\Big) \)


Prandtl number (μCp/k)

\( \dot{Q} \)

Flowrate (m3/s)


Reynolds number (ρuD/μ)


Rayleigh number (GrPr)


Richardson number (Gr/Re2)


Temperature (K)


Pressure drop (Pa)


Uncertainty (%)


The height of fin (m)

Greek symbols


Dynamic viscosity (m2/s)


Figure of merit


Density (kg/m3)


Density difference (kg/m3)


Number of Pi


Helix angle (°)


Inclination of tubes (°)


Vertex angle (°)


Nanoparticles mass concentration (%)


Pumping Power (W)



Characteristics of fluid at average bulk temperature


Base fluid

b, o

Bulk outlet

b, i

Bulk inlet


Experimental values




Appraised at the wall conditions



  1. 1.
    Sider EN, Tate GE (1936) Heat transfer and pressure drop of liquids in tables. Ind Eng Chemist 28:1429–1435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown AR, Thomas MA (1965) Combined free and forced convection heat transfer for laminar flow in horizontal tubes. Ins Mech Eng 7:440. Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Joye DD (2003) Pressure drop correlation for laminar, mixed convection, aiding flow heat transfer in a vertical tube. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 24:260–266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang L, Farrell KJ (2010) Mixed convection in vertical tube: high Reynolds number. ASME Proceeding, IHC14–23266, pp. 269–276.doi:
  5. 5.
    Laskowski GM, Kearney SP, Evans G, Greif R (2007) Mixed convection heat transfer to and from a horizontal cylinder in cross-flow with heating from below. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 28:454–468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hasadi YMFEI, Busedra AA, Rusturn IM (2007) Laminar mixed convection in the entrance region of horizontal semicrocular duct with the flat wall at the top. J Heat Transf 129(9):1203–1211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choudhury D, Pantakar SV (1988) Combined forced and free laminar convection in the entrance region of an inclined isothermal tube. J Heat Transf 110(4a):901–909. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mare T, Voicu I, Miriei J (2006) Experimental analysis of mixed convection in inclined tube. Appl Therm Eng 26(14–15):1677–1683. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choi SUS, Eastman JA (1995) Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluid with nanoparticles. Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, eds. D.A. Signier and H.P. Wang, ASME,NewYork,FED-Vol.231/MID.66:99–105.
  10. 10.
    Lee S, Choi SUS, Li S, Eastman JA (1999) Measuring thermal conductivity of fluid containing oxide nanoparticles. J Heat Transf 12:280–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fakoor Pakdaman M, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Razi P (2012) An experimental investigation on thermos-physical properties and overall performance of MWCNT/ heat transfer oil nanofluid flow inside vertical helically coiled tubes. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 40:103–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akhavan- Behabadi MA, Hekmatipour F, Mirhabibi SM, Sajadi B (2015) Experimental investigation of thermal-rheological properties and heat transfer behavior of the heat transfer oil-copper oxide (HTO- CuO) nanofluid in smooth tubes. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 68:681–688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Hekmatipour F, Mirhabibi SM, Sajadi B (2014) An empirical study on heat transfer and pressure drop properties of heat transfer oil-copper oxide nanofluid in microfin tube. Int commun Heat Mass Transfer 57:150–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Madhesh D, Parameshwaran R, Kalaiselvam S (2016) Experimental studies on convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of meta and metal oxide nanofluids under turbulent flow regime. Heat Transfer Eng. 37(5):422–434. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amiri A, Shanbedi M, Yarmand H, Arzani HK, Gharehkhani S, Montazer E, Sardri R, Sarsam W, Chew BT, Kazi SN (2015) Laminar convective heat transfer of hexylamine-treated MWCNTs-based turbine oil nanofluid. Energy Conv Manage 105:355–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jafarimoghaddam A, Aberoumand S, Aberoumand H, Javaherdeh K (2017) Experimental study on CU/oil nanofluids through concentric annular tube: a correlation. Heat Transfer-Asian Re 46(3):251–260. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abbaslan Arani AA, Aberoumand H, Aberoumand S, Jafari Moghaddam A (2016) An empirical investigation on thermal characteristics and pressure drop of ag-oil nanofluid in concentric annular tube. Heat Mass Transf 52(8):1693–1706. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeinali Heris S, Farzin F, Sardarabadi H (2015) Experimental comparison among thermal characteristics of three metal oxide nanoparticles/turbine oil –based nanofluids under laminar flow regime. Int J Thermophysics 36(4):760–782. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moghari RM, Talebi F, Rafee R, Shariat M (2015) Numerical study of pressure drop and thermal chararcteristics of Al2O3-water nanofluid flow in horizontal Alumuli. Heat Transfer Eng. 36(2):166–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ghobadi M, Muzychka YS (2016) A review of heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for laminar flow in curved circular ducts. Heat Transfer Eng. 37(10):815–839. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ghazvini M, Akhavan-behabadi MA, Rasouli E, Raisee M (2011) Heat transfer properties of nanodiamond-engine oil nanofluid in laminar flow. Heat Transfer Eng 33(6):525–532. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Feng ZZ, Li W (2013) Laminar mixed convection of large-Prandtl number in tube nanofluid flow. Part I: experimental study. Int J Heat Mass Transf 65(10):919–927. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li W, Fang ZZ (2013) Laminar mixed convection of large-Prandtl number in tube nanofluid flow. Part II: experimental study. Int J Heat Mass Transf 65(10):928–935. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aberoumand S, Jafarimoghaddam A (2016) On the thermal characteristics of ag/heat transfer oil nanoluids flow inside curved tubes. Appl Therm Eng 108:967–979. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ben Mansour R, Galanis N, Nguyen CT (2011) Experimental study of mixed convection with water- Al2O3 nanofluid in inclined tube with uniform wall heat flux. Int J Therm Sci 50(3):403–410. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Derakhshan MM, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Mohseni SG (2015) Experiments on mixed convection heat transfer and performance evaluation of MWCNT-oil nanofluid in horizontal and vertical microfin tubes. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 61(2):241–248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Derakhshan MM, Akhavan-Behabadi MA (2016) Mixed convection of MWCNT-heat transfer oil nanofluid inclined plain and microfin tubes laminar assisted flow. Int J Therm Sci 99:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Derakhshan MM, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Ghazvini M (2015) Rheological characteristics, pressure drop, and skin friction coefficient of MWCNT-oil nanfluid flow inside an incline microfin tube. Heat Transfer Eng. 36(17):1436–1446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Hekmatipour F, Sajadi B (2016) An empirical study on the mixed convection transfer and pressure drop of HTO/CuO nanofluid inclined tube. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 78:10–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ben Mansour R, Galanis N, Nguyen CT (2009) Developing laminar mixed convection of nanofluids in an inclined tube with uniform wall heat flux. Int J Num Math Heat Fluid Flow 19(2):146–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Malvandi A, Ganji DD (2015) Fully developed flow ana heat transfer of nanofluid inside a vertical annulas. J Brazilian Soc Mech Sci 37(1):141–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mirmasoumi S, Behzadmeher A (2012) Effect of nanoparticle mean diameter on the particle migration and thermos-hydraulic behaviour of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in an inclined tube. Heat Mass Transf 48(8):1397–1308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Izadi M, Behzadmeher A, Shahmardan M (2015) Effect of inclination angle on laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid flowing through an annulus. Chem Eng Communi 202(12):1693–1702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Holman JP (2001) Experimental methods for engineers. McGraw Hill, New York. Edition 7, 2001Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rohsenow WM, Hartnett JP, Cho YI (1998) Handbook of heat transfer, Third Edition. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    White FM (1998) Fluid Mechanic fourth ed. McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jackson TW, Spuerlock JM, Purdy R (1961) Combined free and force convection in a stable temperature horizontal pipe. AICHE J 7(1):38–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ho C-J, Chen W-C, Yan W-M (2013) Experimental study on cooling performance of minichannel heat sink using water-based MEPCM particle. Int Comuni Heat Mass Transfer 48:67–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Routbort JL, Singh D, Timofeeva EV, Yu W, France DM (2011) Pumping power of nanofluid in flowing system. J Nanopat Res 13:931–937. Akhavan-BehabadiCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy and Environment, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of PhysicsSemnan UniversitySemnanIran
  3. 3.School of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringIslamic Azad University Kashan BranchKashanIran
  4. 4.Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations