Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Experimental investigation of heat transfer of R134a in pool boiling on stainless steel and aluminum tubes

  • C. WenglerEmail author
  • J. Addy
  • A. Luke


Due to high energy demand required for chemical processes, refrigeration and process industries the increase of efficiency and performance of thermal systems especially evaporators is indispensable. One of the possibilities to meet this purpose are investigations in enhancement of the heat transfer in nucleate boiling where high heat fluxes at low superheat are transferred. In the present work, the heat transfer in pool boiling is investigated with pure R134a over wide ranges of reduced pressures and heat fluxes. The heating materials of the test tubes are aluminum and stainless steel. The influence of the thermal conductivity on the heat transfer coefficients is analysed by the surface roughness of sandblasted surfaces. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing thermal conductivity, surface roughness and reduced pressures. The experimental results show a small degradation of the heat transfer coefficients between the two heating materials aluminum and stainless steel. In correlation with the VDI Heat Atlas, the experimental results are matching well with the predictions but do not accurately consider the stainless steel material reference properties.


Nucleate boiling Thermal conductivity Heat flux Evaporators 



Surface [m2]


Effusivity [Ws0.5/m2K]


Heat capacity [J/kgK]


Diameter [m]


Influence of the properties of the wall material


Influence of the properties of the wall material by VDI Heat-Atlas


Grashof number


Tube length [m]


Heated tube length [m]


Slope of regression lines


Nusselt number


Prandtl number


Mean roughness [μm]

Pa, 0

Reference mean roughness [μm]


Reduced pressure


Critical pressure

\( \dot{\mathrm{q}} \)

Heat flux [W/m2]

\( \dot{\mathrm{Q}} \)

Heat flow [W]

Greek symbols


Heat transfer coefficient [W/m2K]

\( {\upalpha}_{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{a},0}} \)

Heat transfer coefficient for the reference mean roughness [W/m2K]


Overall uncertainty [%]


Temperature difference [K]


Average temperature difference [K]


Density [kg/m3]


Circumferential angle [°]


Thermal conductivity [W/mK]


Saturation temperature [°C]


Critical temperature [°C]


Wall temperature [°C]



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Technical ThermodynamicsUniversity of KasselKasselGermany

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